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Anatomy and Physiology running

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Michael Spaeth

on 9 November 2012

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Transcript of Anatomy and Physiology running

Biomechanical Analysis of Running By Michael Spaeth
Anatomy and Physiology
Period 6 The process of running The process of running is a very complex process that requires many muscles of the body. Although all muscles are necessary in running, the lower half of the body's muscles are used the most. Major muscle sections in the lower half of the body are the thigh muscles, leg muscles, and the foot muscles. Joints used while running Hip Joint: These joints are connected at the coxa and the proximal end of the femur. They are ball and socket joints. As one hip joint extends, the other hip joint flexes in an alternating pattern.
Knee Joint: These joints are connected at the distal ends of the femur and the proximal end of the tibia. They are modified hinge joints. When the hip joint is flexed during running, the knee joint becomes flexed as well. When the hip joint is extended, the knee joint does the same again.
Ankle Joint: These joints are connected at the talus to the distal end of the tibia and the fibula. As your foot leaves the ground in the process of running, it plantar flexes to give off force from the ground to gain speed. Also while your legs alternate from leaving the ground, the foot that is coming back to the ground dorsiflexes. The Thigh Muscles First, the muscles within the thigh that are used during running are mainly psoas major, iliacus, and the glutei.The psoas major and the iliacus work together to flex the hip joint while running. The psoas major’s origin is the lumbar intervertebral discs and the transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae. Its insertion is the lesser trochanter of the femur. The iliacus’ origin is the iliac fossa of the ilium and its insertion is the lesser trochanter of the femur. The antagonist of these muscles is the glutei muscles. The glutei muscles together extend the hip joints while running. This helps to push your body forward as you run. The gluteus maximus’ origin is at the sacrum, coccyx, and posterior surface of the ilium. Its insertion is the posterior surface of the femur and fascia of the thigh. The gluteus medius’ and the gluteus minimus’ origin are both at the lateral surface of the ilium, while their insertion is at the greater trochanter of the femur. The glutei muscles also help to maintain posture while running. Leg muscles Second, the muscles within the leg that are mainly used during running are the hamstring group and the quadriceps femoris group. The hamstring group consists of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and the semimembranosus muscles which flex the knee joints and extend the hip joints. The biceps femoris’ origin is the ischial tuberosity and the linea aspera of the femur, while its insertion is the head of the fibula and the lateral condyle of the tibia. The semitendinosus’ and the semimembranosus’ origin is the ischial tuberosity. However, the semitendinosus’ insertion is the medial surface of the tibia, whereas the semimembranosus’ insertion is the medial condyle of the tibia. This hamstring group’s antagonist is the quadriceps femoris group. The quadriceps femoris group consists of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and the vastus intermedius. These muscles extend the knee joint and flex the hip joint while running. This process allows you to take strides between each step. The rectus femoris’ origin is the spine of the ilium and the margin of the acetabulum. The vastus lateralis’ origin is the greater trochanter and the posterior surface of the femur. The vastus medialis’ origin is the medial surface of the femur. The castus intermedius’ origin is the anterior and the lateral surfaces of the femur. All of the quadriceps femoris group’s insertion is at the patella by the common tendon, which continues as the patellar ligament to the tibial tuberosity. As you run, the quadriceps femoris group helps to withstand body weight. Foot Muscles Third, are the muscles that control the ankle joint while running, which are the main shin muscles and the main calf muscles. The main shin muscles are the tibialis anterior and the fibularis tertius. Their purpose while running is to dorsiflex the foot. The tibialis anterior’s origin is the lateral condyle and the lateral surface of the tibia, while its insertion is at the tarsal bone and the first metatarsal. The fibularis tertius’ origin is at the anterior surface of the fibula, while its insertion is at the dorsal surface of the fifth metatarsal. These muscles also help prevent the toes from dragging while running. The shin’s antagonists are the calf muscles. The main calf muscles for running contain the gastrocnemius, soleus, and the tibialis posterior. Their main purposes are to plantar flex the ankle and flex the knee. The gastrocnemius’ origin is the lateral and medial condyles of the femur, while its insertion is at the posterior surface of the calcaneus. The soleus’ origin is at the head and shaft of the fibula and the posterior surface of the tibia, while its insertion is at the posterior surface of the calcaneus as well. The tibialis posterior’s origin is at the lateral condyle and posterior surface of the tibia and posterior surface of the fibula, while its insertion is at the tarsal and metatarsal bones. Conclusion Although running may seem like a simple exercise on the outside, in the inside it is a very complex biomechanical process that the body has perfected for proper balance and successful movement. Everything created with the muscles such as the origin and the insertion of them are all necessary in order for us to move the joints of the body which are just as important for us in order to perform activities such as running. If our body wasn’t built the way it is, we might not have been able to do the activities we all do today.
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