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Acid Rain

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Ogoba Princewill

on 13 November 2014

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Transcript of Acid Rain

Acid Precipitation


The burning of coal and oil
Car and truck exhausts
Volcanoes
Power stations that create electricity
Factories
Lightning
Bibliography
Chemical Reaction
Economic Importance
Environmental Impacts
Ogoba and Stephaine
What is Acid precipitation
Health Impact
Acid precipitation was first observed in the mid 19th century, when people noticed that forests located around large industrial areas showed signs of deterioration. The term “acid rain” was made in 1872 by Robert Angus Smith, an English scientist. In fact it was not seen as an environmental problem until the 1970s when scientists noticed the increasing acidity in lakes.
History
High levels of acidic precipitation can cause damage and harm to our environment in various ways, for our natural surroundings a chain effect can occur
Lakes and Water Life
Environment
Tress & Plant Life
Can draw away important nutrients and minerals from the leaves and soil
Without these "vitamins" trees and plants can't grow properly
Loose their leaves
No longer strong enough to fight against harsh cold and illness
Wildlife
Indirectly effects food chain- poisoning in species, lose of food for other species
Lose of habitat for wildlife
Equations
carbon dioxide
CO
2
(g)
+
H O
2
(l)
H CO
2
3
(aq)
Nitrate
NO
2
(s)
+
H O
(l)
HNO
(aq)
The acidic levels the scientist found are due to
Nitrate
sulfur trioxide
carbon dioxide
nitrogen gas

Acid precipitation occurs through a number of ways such as lightning strikes which produce nitrogen that creates nitric acid when reacted with water vapor. However sulfur emitted from coal and oil burning plants that creates sulfur dioxide when reacted with oxygen, which reacts with oxygen again creating sulfur trioxide. Which reacts with water vapor, creating sulfuric acid which appears in the form of snow, fog, etc. It travels to the upper atmosphere which ends up into our environment due to the acidic mixture in the clouds.


"What is Acid Rain?." What is Acid Rain?. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2014. <http://www.ncsu.edu/project/bio183de/Black
"Acid Rain." Acid Rain. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2014. <http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~edudev
"A Brief History in Acid Rain." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2014. <http://www.epa.gov/region1/eco/acidrain/

"Effects of Acid Rain - Human Health." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 9 Nov. 2014. <http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/effects/health.html>.
What is Canada doing to prevent these hazardous effects?
Premature death
Respiratory disease- Heart and lung disorders
Asthma
Bronchitis
Breathing Trouble
It is not the acid rain itself that is hazardous, it is the tiny particles made that get into the lungs and the ground-level ozone composed of nitrogen oxides
Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy (1998)
reducing sulphur dioxide emissions in eastern Canada and the US.
protect clean areas from degradation
maintain science and monitoring programs and
report regularly to Ministers and the public
to help protect human health & sensitive areas in Canada
Buildings
"Any form of precipitation (rain, snow, hail, fog, dew) that is abnormally high in acid pollutants- specifically nitric and sulfuric acids"
However it does not look any different from normal precipitation!

How do we measure acidity?
pH scale
Normal rain levels= 5.5-6.0
Increasing Acidity
Acid Rain= pH level less than 5.5
What Creates
Acid Precipitation?
Carbonic acid
Nitric acid
Nitrogen
N
2
(G)
+
20
2
(g)
2NO
2
(G)
2NO2(g) + H2O(l) -> HNO3(aq) + HNO2(aq)
Nitrogen DIOXIDE
Wet Deposition
Dry deposition
-
- Falls to the ground as snow, sleet, acid rain, mist
- In dry weather areas acidic gases and particles fall back on the earth and wind carries it the ground, or stick to houses, buildings, tress, etc.
Enters lakes, and can lead into rivers and streams
Crystal clear and clean appearance
Wildlife- fish, bacteria, organisms cannot survive the acidity of water and die= breaks down ecosystem
Acid eats into metal and stone
Sandstone and limestone are soft materials that can be damaged very easily
Highways, roads, and bridges-weaker & corrode
Erosion is natural but acid rain speeds up the process
* London 1952- Very thick acid smog killed over 4,000 people
Over 21,000 lakes have been badly damaged from acid rain in Canada
Killarney Lake- Sudbury, Ontario

Located near large metal smelters
Lakes began to acidify in the 1920's and by the 1970's dozens were in high concentration
Thousands of species lost
Government regulations reduced emissions by 80% in 1960's-1990's
Some lakes are still recovering
What can you do as an individual?
Save electricity- turn off lights,electronics, etc. when not in use
Carpool, take public transportation, walk, or bike
Use energy-efficient appliances
Monitor thermostat & limit air conditioning
BE INFORMED!

"Effects of Acid Rain - Human Health." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 9 Nov. 2014. <http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/effects/health.html>.
2
3
7.0
Normal water is a little acidic because carbon
dioxide dissolves in it.
Variety of industrial processes, such as the production of iron, extracting metal from ores, production of petroleum and just factories all together.
http://www.policyalmanac.org/environment/archive/acid_rain.shtml
Productions of Iron and steel
As of 2014, Canada is the world's eighth-largest producer of iron ore.

The largest industrial source of CO2 emissions, which increases the carbonic acid that is in normal precipitation

Iron and Steel Industry." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/iron-and-steel-industry/>.
"The Why Files." The Why Files. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. <http://whyfiles.org/2013/a-new-iron-age/>.
Petroleum
Canada produces 2.016 million bbl/day of petrol in 2010

Canada exports 1.073 million bbl/day of petrol in 2010

One liter of petrol = 2.331kg of CO
Factories
Transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas

Nitric oxides, sulfur dioxides, carbon dioxide
Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html>
"The Quiet Road." The Quiet Road RSS. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. <http://numero57.net/2008/03/20/carbon-dioxide-emissions-per-barrel-of-crude/>.
Likens, Gene. "Chemistry of Acid Deposition." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/3761/acid-rain/299475/Chemistry-of-acid-depositio>.
S
(s)
+
O
2
(g)
SO
2
(g)
2SO
2 (g)
+ O
2 (g)
2SO
3 (g)
SO
3 (g)
+ H O
2
(l)
H SO
2
4
(aq)
2
Questions
What is acid precipitation?
Any form of precipitation (rain, snow, hail, fog, dew) that is abnormally high in acid pollutants
What are some causes of acid precipitation ?
Factories
Lightning
The burning of coal and oil
Car and truck exhausts
pg 123
What are some health affects of acid precipitation ?
Nerve damage
Respiratory problems
Cancer risk
Cardiovascular illness
sulfuric ACID
However this is also a negative impact on economics as well!
Acid rain ruins buildings, structures, roads, and environments, and our health costing the government, and us taxpayers millions of dollars annually
Loss of jobs in certain industries (fishery if the lakes are polluted, agriculture if soil damaged)
Summary of
"Acid Precipitation"
Acid precipitation is any form of precipitation that is abnormally high in acid pollutants (pH level= <5.5)
First discovered by Robert Angus Smith in 1872
Caused by both natural causes (lightning, volcanoes) and anthropogenic causes (exhausts of vehicles, burning of coal and oil, factories)
These pollutants then react in the atmosphere to create acids, such as sulfuric and nitric acid
Factories which cause acid precipitation, create many products and necessities adding to our jobs and economy, however the bill for acid rain damage then comes into play
Causes damage to lakes, wildlife, trees, and buildings
Tiny-particles created from formation of acid precipitation get into the lungs of human, causing various breathing problems, such as asthma and lung cancer
THANK YOU!
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