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6.02 Immune System
Transcript of 6.02 Immune System
Florence and Frank Flu are waiting patiently on a door knob for their chance at a pickup. As your hand approaches the door knob, they seize the opportunity and latch on to your skin. What will happen to Florence and Frank as they attempt to find an entrance to your body? (4 points)
Florence is dead, but Frank Flu has found a way into your body through a tiny cut on your hand. Which non-specific chemical and biological immune responses could destroy Frank Flu before he replicates? Describe exactly how each of these responses could take Frank down! (4 points)
Basophils will gather at the site of infection and release histamines to trigger inflammation and increased blood flow. This will bring neutrophils and monocytes to the site. Neutrophils will release powerful chemicals and they can eat and kill Frank before he enters my bloodstream. Once they arrive at the site of injury and infection, monocytes will turn into macrophages and they will surround and engulf Frank. Also, they will clean up dead neutrophils and reove cellular debris.
Antibacterial enzymes in my skin and blood will also attempt to neutralize Frank, and histamines will alert other cells to his presence.
Your non-specific immunity killed Frank, but not before he managed to infect a cell and replicate. His clones are everywhere and now your specific immunity must take over. List and describe all the components of your specific immunity that will destroy all the Frank Flu clone viruses! (4 points)
Now that the invasion is over, what will your immune system do to prepare for future attacks from Frank’s relatives? (4 points)
As you enter your kitchen, you snag an orange from the fruit bowl and begin to peel away the skin. When you pop an orange slice in your mouth, Florence Flu slides in too. What chemical barriers will stop her now? (4 points)
They will initially be blocked by the physical barrier that the skin provides. Also, antibacterial enzymes excreted by the skin will attempt to kill or neutralize them.
At first the enzymes in my saliva will attempt to destroy her, and if they are ineffective, my stomach acid will dissolve her.
The B-lymphocytes that have immunoglobulins for Frank will bind to clones and neutralize them. Then they will release antibodies that will trigger the production of more B-cells for Frank and can also do a B-cell's job on their own.
Meanwhile, any helper T cells that encounter a clone will send out cytokines to stimulate the production of more B and T cells. Also, cytotoxic T cells that are coded for Frank will bind to and destroy any clones that they encounter.
Memory B and T cells will "remember" Frank and will be able to mount a specific immune response very quickly to neutralize any of his relatives before I can even start to show signs of infection.