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Clauses of Reason, Purpose, Result and Concession

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Shantal Vega

on 8 June 2015

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Transcript of Clauses of Reason, Purpose, Result and Concession

Clauses of Reason, Purpose, Result and Concession
Clauses of Reason
Clauses of Purpose
Clauses of Result
We use Clauses of Result to express the result of an action or a conclusion.
Clauses of Concession
Exercises
Choose the correct word:

Kelvin changed his major from Geography to Business Studies _____ improving his job prospects.

Dr Leung arranged some extra tutorials _____ give her students more opportunities to ask questions before the examination.

A key piece of equipment broke down _____ the laboratory session had to be cancelled.

_____Tony has a very good foundation in English, he had little difficulty in passing the examination.

Structure:

because + clause because of + noun/-ing form
Use:
To answer a question with "why"
Example:
Se couldn´t get to work on time because the traffic was heavy / because of the heavy traffic
Structure:

as
since
Use
Usually at the beginning of a sentence
Example:
As the weather was fine, we decided to go for a swim
Structure:
Use:
Example:
Due to + noun/-ing form
Due to the fact + that-clause
Formal structure meaning "because of"
Due to a heavy snowstorm, all flights to Oslo were cancelled yesterday
Structure:
Use:
Example:
Structure:
Use:
Example:
Example:
Example:
Use:
Use:
Structure:
Structure:
to + base form
so as (not) to + base form
in order (not) to + base form
The subject of the verb and the infinitive is always the same
I just called to invite you to a party
He walked in quietly so as not to wake up his parents
We are saving money in order to buy a new car
for + -ing form
To express the purpose or function
I use the electric knife for cutting meat
1) so that + subject + can/may/will
2) so that + subject + could/might/would

1) Purpose with present or future time reference
2) Purpose with past time reference
1) Please close the door so that the cat come in
2) He walked quietly so that nobody could hear his footsteps
1) in case + present tense
2) in case + past tense
1) Purpose with present or future time reference
2) Purpose with past time reference
1) I`ll take an umbrella in case it rains
2) He gave me this telephone number in case I wanted to call him
We use Clauses of Concession to express contrast or opposition to the main clause
although / even though / though + subject + verb
Although / even though / though he was starving, he didn`t take any of the food they offered him
in spite of / despite + noun -ing form / what...
Despite the heavy rain, it was very hot
In spite of feeling afraid, Jim went on the roller coaster
Despite what you may think, that`s not the case
in spite of / despite + the fact + that-clause
He went dancing in spite of/despite the fact that he had a terrible headache
so + adjective/adverb + that
That Maths problem was so difficult that I couldn`t solve it
They shouted so loudly that everybody heard them
so + much/many/little/few + noun + that
I`ve heard this song so manytimes that I know i by heart now.
such + a/an + (adjective) + singular countable noun + that
It was such a beautiful day that we decided to go for a picnic
such + (adjective) + uncountable / plural countable noun + that
She was wearing such a strange clothes that everyone was looking at her
such + a lot of + noun + that
I`ve put on such a lot of weight that I don`t fit into my clothes any more
too + adjective or adverb (+for somebody) + full infinitive
This dress is too expensive for me to buy

P rofessor Li repeated the point in Cantonese _____ the students would fully understand.

David was _____ busy with his final-year project that he was unable to take part in extra-curricular activities.

It was _____ a successful lecture series that the English Language Centre decided to repeat it the following semester.

The examination had to be postponed _____ the typhoon.

Amy joined the English Club _____ she wanted to increase her circle of friends.
as
so
so that
because
with the result that
in order that
with a view to
such
on account of
so as to
as
so
so that
because
with the result that
in order that
with a view to
such
on account of
so as to
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