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Black Segregation and Civil Rights Movements Timeline
Transcript of Black Segregation and Civil Rights Movements Timeline
Joe Louis Knocks Out Max Schmeling (1938)
When Joe Louis faced off against Max Schmeling in 1938, the whole world was abuzz. Two years before, the German Schmeling had defeated the African-American boxer, leading Nazis to brag that Aryans were indeed the superior race. Given this, the rematch was viewed as both a face off between the U.S. and Nazi Germany and a face off between blacks and Aryans.
Before the Louis-Schmeling rematch, the German boxer’s publicist even bragged that no black man could defeat Schmeling. Louis proved him wrong. In just over two minutes, Louis triumphed over Schmeling, knocking him down three times during the Yankee Stadium bout.
After his win, blacks across America rejoiced.
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)
When Rosa Parks was arrested on Dec. 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Ala., for not giving her seat to a white man, who knew it would lead to a 381-day boycott?
In Alabama then, blacks sat in the back of buses, while whites sat in front. If front seats ran out, however, the blacks were to relinquish their seats to whites.
To end this policy, Montgomery blacks
the legal and social system of separating citizens on the basis of race.
maintained the repression of black citizens in Alabama and other southern states until it was dismantled during the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s and by subsequent civil rights legislation.
usually understood as a legal system of control consisting of the denial of voting rights, the maintenance of separate schools, and other forms of separation between the races,
Jim Crow Laws! (early 1900s)
“It shall be unlawful for a negro and white person to play together or in company with each other in any game of cards or dice, dominoes or checkers.”
—Birmingham, Alabama, 1930
Jim Crow Laws included laws that discriminated against African Americans with concern to attendance in public schools and the use of facilities such as restaurants, theaters, hotels, cinemas and public baths. Trains and buses were also segregated and in many states marriage between whites and African American people.
Murder of Emmett Till (1955)
In August 1955, Chicago teen Emmett Till traveled to Mississippi to visit family. Less than a week later, he was dead. Why? The 14-year-old reportedly whistled at a white shop owner’s wife. In retaliation, the man and his brother kidnapped Till on Aug. 28. They then beat and shot him, finally dumping him in a river, where they weighed him down by attaching an industrial fan to his neck with barbed wire. When Till’s decomposed body turned up days later, he was grotesquely disfigured. So the public could see the violence done to her son, Till’s mother, Mamie, had an open casket at his funeral. Pictures of mutilated Till sparked global outrage and kicked off the U.S. civil rights movement.
Scottsboro Boys (1931)
Nine black youths are indicted in Scottsboro, Alabama on charges of having raped two white women. Although the evidence was slim, the southern jury sentenced them to death. The Supreme Court overturns their convictions twice; each time Alabama retries them, finding them guilty. In a third trial, four of the Scottsboro boys are freed; but five are sentenced to long prison terms.
Martin Luther King's Assassination (1968)
The American black civil rights leader, Martin Luther King, Jr., is assassinated in Memphis, Tenn in April, 1968. Dr King was shot dead in the southern US city of Memphis, Tennessee, where he was to lead a march of sanitation workers protesting against low wages and poor working conditions.
The US President, Lyndon Johnson, has postponed a trip to Hawaii for peace talks on Vietnam.
The president said he was "shocked and saddened" by the civil rights leader's death.
"I ask every citizen to reject the blind violence that has taken Dr King who lived by non-violence," Mr Johnson said.
President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing (April 11).
Executive Order 9981 (1948)
President Truman had been examining the issue of segregation in the armed forces since at least 1947, when he appointed the President's Committee on Civil Rights.
By January 1948, internal White House memos indicated that the President was determined to end military segregation by executive order. However, it was not until the delegates at the 1948 Democratic National Convention called for a liberal civil rights plank that included desegregation of the armed forces that Truman felt comfortable enough to issue Executive Order No. 9981 on July 26.
The order stated that "It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin." The order also established the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services.
Jackie Robinson--The first black baseball player (1947)
Jackie Robinson became the first African-American to play major league baseball, becoming Rookie of the Year in 1947, National League MVP in 1949 and a World Series champ in 1955.
Robinson also became a vocal champion for African-American athletes, civil rights, and other social and political causes. In July 1949, he testified on discrimination before the House Un-American Activities Committee. In 1952, he publicly called out the Yankees as a racist organization for not having broken the color barrier five years after he began playing with the Dodgers.
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were asked not to ride city buses on the day Parks appeared in court. When she was found guilty of violating segregation laws, the boycott continued.
By carpooling, using taxis and walking, blacks boycotted for months. Then, on June 4, 1956, a federal court declared segregated seating unconstitutional, a decision the Supreme Court upheld.
On April 12th 1963, Martin Luther King Jr was arrested following a nonviolent protest demonstrating against segregation in Birmingham Alabama. Police Commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor arrested King for demonstrating without a permit and placed him in the Birmingham City Jail for 11 days. During his time In jail King wrote his famous "letter From Birmingham City Jail" in response to a letter written by eight local clergymen which stated that King's protest was "unwise and untimely" and asking the black population for an end to the demonstration. In His response King argued that it was a moral obligation to disobey unjust laws, and that African Americans have waited long enough for there full rights as citizens.
Martin Luther King's Arrest (1963)