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Kingdoms of Life Project
Transcript of Kingdoms of Life Project
cell walls have no peptidoglycan 3 Types of Archaebacteria Methanogens- produce methane
sewage treatment plants
intestines of animals- cow, pig, etc. Halophiles- thrive in high salt concentrations
pools of sea water Thermophiles- heat loving
hot springs Protists are split into two categorizes: Plant-Like Protist commonly simply called Algae
contain chloroplast and get energy though photosynthesis
have extra pigments to give Algae different colors
Produces large quantities of oxygen which is released into atmosphere Animal-like Protista
Heterotrophs Example-Animal-like protists most live in water (some live in wet soil or the human body)
they are eukaryotic (have a nucleus)
A protista is any organism that is not classifed as a plant, animal or fungus Plants -They are prokaryotic organisms which means that they lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus, are unicellular and its genome is single circular, plasmids and with no introns. A living organism:
that makes their own food though photosynthesis with require Chloroplast
Chloroplast contain chlorophyll than make the plant green. Catherine Cauley Rayne Pothong + Catherine Cauley -Their cell wall contain peptidoglycan, a polymer of NAG-NAM peptide monomers, connected by β-(1,4), glycosidic linkage, to form an alternating chain, which prevents the cell from bursting from osmotic pressure of water flowing into the cell. It is outside the plasma membrane. -Some bacteria have a plasma, phospholipid bilayer studded with protein, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Having this layer prevents them from retaining a particular dye that is used to classify bacteria. Plant cells are more uniform than their animal counterparts, as they have a cell wall, which keep in water, and foreign things out. -Their transcription and translation are coupled. -Domain Bacteria. They can live just about anywhere and move by a flagella anchored in their cell wall Also called true bacteria -Heterotrophs. Some bacteria absorb or take in organic material from living or dead organisms. -Autotrophs or phototrophs. Some bacteria make their food by photosynthesis and may or may not use oxygen in the process. Uses hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into methane sulfur in metabolism
produces sulfuric acid -Gram-positive bacteria are stained with dark blue or violet by gram straining. these have lots or peptidoglycan in the cell wall and lack the 2nd membrane. -Gram-negative bacteria aren't stained and stay pink-red with low peptidoglycan and have the second membrane (LPS). -You can't see eubacteria with the naked eye Escherichia coli Pseudonomas aeruginosa Reproduction Eubacteria reproduce asexually Some Eubacteria reproduce by binary fission. When they reach to a fixed size the genetic material is replicated, moved to separate nucleoid regions and the membrane pinches inward making 2 new daughter cells. Reproduction can happen as fast as every 20 minutes Role of Bacteria in an Enviornment Bacteria decompose organic material to help prevent pollution and harmful microorganisms. They degrade dead things into energy and nutrients. Bacteria cycle minerals like carbon and sulfur. Help photosynthesis. Eubacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates and nitrites and make it available to plants. Bioremedation: Degration of organic compounds Bacteria help photosynthesis and increase productivity, growth, and health in plants. Bacteria make helpful drugs, hormones, and antibodies Key Characteristics Eubacteria Diseases Caused by Eubacteria Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pink Eye Conjunctivitis Leprosy Mycobacterium leprae download.thelancet.com/images/journalimages/0140-6736/PIIs104673609611363.fx2.sml.gif www.healthline.com/images/gale/big/gem_03_img0400.jpg www.webmd.com/eye-health/ss/slideshow-pinkeye biology-pictures.blogspot.com/2011/11/binary-fission-of-paramecuim.html explore.ecb.org/videos/VLC_file?TYPE=ImageP1=2100&REFERER=OTHER en.wikipedia.org/Gram-negative_bacteria en.wikipedi.org/Gram-postive_bacteria tolweb.org/images/eubacteria/2 (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr What's Fungi? . Fungus is a plantlike organism, however, they have
chitins cell wall instead of cellulose . Their storage caborhydrate is glycogen, which is same is human's muscles .They determine the type of organism that live close . They can't create food and nutrients so, they take nutrients off their host. There are 3 types:
1.Parasitic Fungi- These fungi absorb nutrient by feeding on live host.
2.Saprobes or saprophytes- These break down decaying organisms and feed on the organic compounds that has rotten,.
3.Symbiosis-These stayed to the root of the plant and help it absorb nutrients and water. On the other hand, the plant help the fungi get the neccessary nutrient . Mycologists ,people who study about fungi belived that we had only found 5% of all the fungi http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fungi/basidio/mushroomsi.gif http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/Portals/0/Gardening/Gardening%20Help/images/Pests/Armillaria_Root_Rot2073.jpg http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biosystematics/fungi/foray/images/entoloma.jpg http://www.allstop.com/images/examples/athletes-foot.jpg .Also notes that some fungi are microscopic but some extended more than thousand acres such as the Armillaria bulbosa http://www.crystalfalls.org/images/mushroom1.jpg Fungi reproduction .Fungus exist almost everywhere, from underground to the air or even into space or even where the temperature is extreme .There are two ways fungus can reproduce: asexually and sexually Asexual Reproduction .Spores may be produce directly from the hyphae of the fungus and then germinate to produce additional mycelium which spreads rapidly .There are also many others way such as:
-Binary Fission: When a cells divide into 2 similar cells and continue to do so. It spreads and reproduce really fast such as the yeast
-Budding: When a yeast cell grow on its mother cell until it can grow up and detach and growth as an individual. Sexual Reproduction . When 2 mating types fuses, each give half set of fungi chromosomes just like human .However, in the beginning stage, their nuclei remains coexist but doesn't fuse together, until the right condition have met, these two haploids nuclei then combines and proceed to meiosis. This stage that the 2 nucleis coexist is called Dikaryon stage. Diagram of a Fungi 1.Hyphya: Most fungi start off as a hyphya. It has a rigid wall around it made of chitins 2. Conidiophore: A type of asexuall reproductive spores and it hold conidia 3. Phialide: A flask-shaped projection from the vesicle of certain fungi. 4.Conidia: Similar to conidiophore and it detach after it mature 5. Septum: A partition dividing filamentous hyphae into discrete cells in fungi (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr . Chytrids are found near freshwater or damp soil .Produce motile spores called zoospores . Chytrids are saprobes and they decompose dead matters and also break down protective covers of organisms . Anaerobic Chytrids live in digestive tracts to break down materials and don't need oxygen to survive .Can survive tough conditions and weather .Some can eat away skins and caused skin infection Chytrids http://www.davidlnelson.md/Cazadero/CazImages/Chytridiomycota.jpg .Majority is parasites of algae and animals Zygomycetes . Black bread molds is common in this category .This type of fungi decompose bread, fruits,vegies and decay animal .They formed black dots which produce sporangiospores . They are insect and spider parasites http://tolweb.org/tree/ToLimages/Pilobolus_kleinii1.jpg Tip . Sac or cup fungi and is edible . Morels and truffles belongs to this category and some lichens . 30,000 ascomycetes were discovered and about 500 of them are called yeasts .These fungi interact with plant roots yo form mycorrhizae and is essential for plants to obtain water and minerals . Most plants survive better with a fungus roots .These fungi are used in brewing, food, winemaking, and as a sources of therapeutic drugs . They are also used in the production of cheese and can cause devastating disease to plants http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/images/thumb/5/54/20101121_212039_Mildew.jpg/300px-20101121_212039_Mildew.jpg Ascomycota . Mushrooms and others lichens belongs to this category They are sometimes called club fungi and contains both poisonous and editble mushrooms . They decompose living and dead woods in the forest and also on man-made structures . Bird nest mostly contains Basidiomycota and some leaf ants live on a special kind of basidiomicetes http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Haeckel_Basimycetes.jpg/250px-Haeckel_Basimycetes.jpg (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr Honey Mushroom Armillaria mellea gilled basidiomycete mushroom Omphalotus nidiformis Epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria Dung-loving bird's nest Cyathus stercoreus Fungi How do Protists move? pseudopod
or parasitic Reproduction- asexual binary fission
conjugation Animal Cells What is Animals? .Animals is multicellular organism .They undergo metamorphosis later on in life . Animals is heterotroph (cannot produce their own food like plants so they must consume other organisms for energy) . One of the most important that animals are different from other forms of life is that they motile, which mean they can move independently as they want Animals vs Bacteria and Protist . Animals is multicellular and their cell are eukaryotic while bacteria and protist are unicellular and is prokaryotic Animals vs Plants and Algae . Animals cannot fix carbon and produce organic compounds i.e. they can't produce their own food and is heterotrophic which seperate them from plants and algae since both of them can use carbon and produce organic compounds and their own food and energy Animals vs Plants, Algae and Fungi . As you can see, animals cells don't have cells wall, which is contrast to Plants, Algae and Fungi which have rigid cell walls in their cells Let's take a look at two different category of animals, Invertebrates and Vertebrates -Crustaceans: These animals have hard external shell, their head has atennae, which is for sensing. The abdomen contains the heart, digestive system and reproductive system. It also has appendages such as legs and claws
ex. Crab, Lobster, and barnacle Mosses & liverworts
Ferns & horsetails
Monocots and Dicots plant types The Biosphere give other organisms food
give off oxygen into the atmosphere http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/images/acerub/thumbnails/acerubM.jpg Arachnids: These have a hard exoskeleton and jointed appendages. Most of them have 4 pairs of legs and do not have atenna. Most of small arachnids can transmit disease
ex. Scorpion, Spider, ticks and mites Acer rubrum Eschscholzia californica http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Kaldari_Eschscholzia_californica_01.jpg/220px-Kaldari_Eschscholzia_californica_01.jpg Metrosideros polymorpha Arthropods: Make up of 75% of world animals. They have limbs and joints that allow them to move. Their exoskeleton is hard and external. Their body cavity contains the nervous system, circulatory system and reproductive and digestive system http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ea/Metrosideros_polymorpha.jpg/290px-Metrosideros_polymorpha.jpg Insects: These animals are very adaptable, living almost everywhere in the world. They have exoskeleton that covers their entire body and consist of 3 parts: the head, thorax and abdomen. They also have a pair of antennae and compound eyes
ex.fly, beetles, butterfly, moth and dragonfly Methods of Reproduction
Fragmentation http://www.safehavengardens.com/images_ed/daylily%20diagram.JPG Vertebrates Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Energy from light, unlike photosynthesis Vertebrates -Fish: Shark, Barracuda, Bass, Salmon Rodents: Squirrel, Mice, and Hamster Amphibians: Frogs, Salamanders, newts, Caecillians Reptiles: Lizards, Snakes, Crocodiles -Chemotrophs. Some bacteria break down inorganic material for energy and nutrition. Fungi Basidomycota Invertebrate Animals . These animals have no backbone, which is opposite with Vertebrate . Some of the organisms belongs to this category are small and really tiny compare to the Vertebrate group . Many of these animals lived deep underground, deep in the ocean water . Other animals that belongs in this category such as crab, spiders, etc have many legs and hard shell Group of organisms that is Invertebrates -Protozoa: Unicellular organism that lives underwater -Echinoderms: Sea star, sea urchin, sand dollar ciano.altervista.org/index.php?section=bionotes/nodes2.html http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fichier:Pseudomonas_aeruginosa_SEM.jpg They also reproduce by budding fragmentation and some of them by spores. http://faculty.ivytech.edu/~twmurphy/text_pg/pro_cell.jpg Poo poor kitty -Annelids: Earthworms, roundworms, flatworms -Mollusks: Snail, slug, octopus, oyster, mussels -Crustaceans: Crab, lobster, barnacle -Arachnids: Spiders, Ticks, and scorpions -Insects: Fly, beetle, butterfly, moth, dragonfly, bee .These animals have backbones, which seperates them from invertebrates, which have no backbones .They all have a stiff rod backbone that runs through the lengths of their body .They have a proper brain and a complex central nervous system .Surprisingly, only 5% of all animals found on Earth are Vertebrates Birds: Eagle, Brown Kiwi, Vultures, Nene Mammals: Rodents, Dolphin, Human, Monkeys Marsupials: Kangaroo, Koala, Wombats Primates: Monkeys, human, chimpanzee Cetaceans: Whales and dolphins Others: Seals, sea lions, walrus How animals obtain nutrient? . Some animals, such as herbivore, consume plants for energy .Some animals, such as canivore, eat others animals or prey on other organism for meat to obtain energy .Many others, such as us, the human consumes both plants and animals meat for energy .Then as the food digest, they get recycled by the plants and bacteria and the nutrients go to the plants and the cycle continue with the animals eating the plants Pictures Human Homo sapien Orange Tabby (Patot and Barot) Felis catus Domestic Short Hair (Hook) Felis domesticus (David and Micah) Canis familiaris Animal Reproduce . Animals can produce either way, asexual or sexual. However, most animals undergo sexual production . Animals can undergo asexually through either budding, gemmules, fragmentation, regeneration and parthenogenesis. . Most others produce through sperm and egg which bring together half set of chromosomes from each parents to form a diploid cell of the newborn Dog
(Bully) Canis Lupus familiaris Amanita Mushroom Amanita muscaria Polypore Mushroom Trametes versicolor Pictures Grass or Weed monocotyledonous Wall Moss Byrophyta Sunflower Helianthus annus Sundrop Oenothera tetragona tomatoes (but like, the ones that are still babies) Solanum lycopersicum Dog (-ish creature)