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jether jed susas

on 13 March 2013

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The estate system – other sociologist give this third system of social stratification. This system is a closed system of stratification in which a persons social position is based on ownership of land ,birth, or military strength.

The estate system is a closed system involving ascribed statuses, it is similar to a caste system , although not as extreme. The estate system – other sociologist give this third system of social stratification. This system is a closed system of stratification in which a persons social position is based on ownership of land ,birth, or military strength.

The estate system is a closed system involving ascribed statuses, it is similar to a caste system , although not as extreme. The subjective method. Researchers using this method simply ask a random sample of the population to name the class they belong to. If the information the researcher receive accurate, he can develop a clear picture of the class structure of the community he is studying.
The reputational method. The researchers select a small town and ask a number of residents to assist them in their study. The residents are usually” old timers” who know just about everyone in town by reputation. The old timers are then asked to identify the social classes that exist in the community and to place each resident in one or another category.
The objective method. The researchers divide people into social classes according to their income, occupation, education, and type of residence. This method is especially useful in studying large population. Methods of Determining Class Division Inequalities of prestige -defined as the social recognition that a person or group receives from others. It can be influenced in a number of ways. It refers to the “esteem, respect, or approval that is granted by an individual or a collectivity for performance or qualities they consider above the average”. 2. Inequalities of power –Sociologist define power as the ability to control ones own life (personal power) and to control or influence the actions of others (social power).
Power – is a fundamental and inherent in all human interaction at every social level; it can be used for constructive as well as selfish ends.
Power – is exercised at both an interpersonal level and a societal level. 5.A fair world – related to the key role of comparison in social life are beliefs about justice or the fair distribution of rewards. We often find that people are more concerned about establishing equity (just division of rewards ) than equality (equal division of rewards ).
6.Just world hypothesis – according to this, people like to believe that there is justice that people get what they deserve. Those who receive higher education may also use it as a stepping stone to higher social status.
Those who teach are affected differently, for they actually achieve their social status within the educational groupings.
Within the framework of the educational groupings, the individual educator may aspire to a higher academic rank, to a much higher position. Education and Social Mobility According to Fitcher “the attempt to achieve higher status in competitive groups sometimes results in an unbalanced social personality”. This occurs usually when the key role, the main instrument of higher prestige in any individual, is emphasized at the expense of the other social roles. A balanced social personality does not simply imply that the individuals time, interest, and effort must be distributed equally among all the social roles. Mobility and Social Personality Hard work.
-many people that hard work is a very important factor causing social mobility.
2. Social structure.
-in some instances, social structure factors may also affect social mobility. In fact, it may serve as an enhancing or a deterring factor.
3. Level of education.
-in almost every society the peoples level of education is a factor that causes social mobility. Through one’s obtaining higher education, one can climb the social and economic ladder.
4. Marriage.
-one’s marriage with someone who belong to a much higher social stratum can cause him to move to a higher social stratum.
5. Luck.
-Filipino in general believe strongly in luck or swerte. Factors affecting Social Mobility 1. Diffusion of cultures.
= this means contact and communication between peoples who had been culturally and geographically isolated.
2. Biological mixture.
= ethnic strains become more entangled. In most cases, this mixture can hardly be traced in just few generations.
3. Urbanization of the culture.
= this is the major effect of internal migration in large modern societies. Urban ways of thinking and acting urban social relations and structures, and increasing secondary associations reach more and more of the population as people crowd into the cities. Effects of Migration Economic factor.
= refers to the desire of people to seek better food supplies workers looking for better living.
2. Political reason.
= some people move to other areas to escape from political oppression and racial discrimination.
3. Educational opportunities.
= at other instances people migrate in order to avail themselves of the educational opportunities prevailing in other areas due to the presence of colleges and universities in other places.
4. Natural calamities.
= the occurrence of various calamities, be they natural or man-made, may also lead people to migrate. Reason for Voluntary Migration Voluntary migration.
= refers to the desire of people to seek better food supplies workers looking for better living.
2. Forced migration.
= it takes several forms such as the expulsion of unwanted people , the herding of people into reservation areas and concentration camps, the transportation of enslaved individuals and groups. Types of Geographical Migration Is known to sociologist as physical mobility.
It is the movement of people from one geographical spot to another and it is a phenomenon of increasing frequency in modern society.

Physical mobility- includes forced relocation of large groups of people. Geographical Migration -is the movement of an individual or a group within a stratification system that changes the individuals or groups status in society.
The amount of mobility in a society depends on two things:
The rules governing how people gain or keep their positions may make mobility difficult or easy.
Whatever the rules, mobility can be influenced by structural changes in society. Social Mobility 1.People who have made it.
The individuals of this level constitute an elite group of wealthy members. These are the old rich, the celebrity rich, the anonymous rich.
2. People who are doing very well.
This level consist of corporation officers and professional people. They live in large, comfortable homes, belong to country clubs, occasionaly take vacations abroad, and send their children to prestigious large universities or private colleges.
3.People who have achieved the middle class dream.
People of this level enjoy the “good life”, but they lack many of the luxuries of those in the higher levels. They are nation’s suburbanites residing in three-bedroom homes with a family TV room.
4. People who have a comfortable life.
Although a step removed from those who enjoy the “good life” these individuals nonetheless live a “comfortable” existence in the less fashionable suburbans. Classes in some Countries Open system {class system} – it has few impediments to social mobility. Positions are awarded on the basis of merit and rank is tied to individual achievements.

In an open system , there is a difference between equality of opportunity when the members of a society achieve different standards of living based on their different talents and contributions and equality of results{when all members of a society have the same standards of living.

Closed System[caste system} – status is ascribed and determined at birth and people are locked into their parents ,social position. In the caste system , ascribed characteristics determine social position , and individual’s opportunities are limited accordingly. Open and Close System 7. Task and rewards are 7. Task and rewards are inequitably
equitably allocated. Allocated.
8.The economic is dimension 8. The economic dimension is
is subordinate to other dimension paramount in society.
of society .
Stratification system generally change 9. Stratification systems often
through evolutionary process. Change through revolutionary
process. The Functionalist View The Conflict View
1. Stratification is 1. Stratification may be universal without being
universal, necessary necessary and inevitable.
and invetable.
2. Social org. 2. The stratification system shapes social organizations
[the social system] {social system}.
shapes the
stratifications system .
3. Stratification arises 3. Stratification arises from group conquest,
from the societal need competition, and conflict.
for integration
coordination, and
4. Stratification facilitates 4. Stratification impedes the optimal functioning of
the optimal functioning society and the individual.
of society and the individual.
5. Stratification is an expression 5. Stratification is an expression of the values of
of commonly shared social values. Powerful groups.
6. Power is usually legitimately 6. Power is illegitimately distributed in society.
distributed in society. Comparison of the two theories:

Theodore D. Kemper
He find common ground for the conflict and functional theories in the ff:
Both theories acknowledge that the evaluation of the contributions of jobs to society also determines unequal rewards.
The Marxist theory leans heavily on the significance of power in the distribution of resources, while the functionalist emphasize the necessity of assigning some positions of work higher status than others.
Both theories recognize that social power plays a part in determining the unequal distribution of rewards.

There are certain points where Max Weber agreed with Karl Marx.
People are motivated by self interest.
Group conflict is a basic ingredient of society.
Those who do not have property can defend their interest less well than those who have property.
Economic institutions are of fundamental importance in shaping the rest of society.
Those in power promote ideas and values that help them maintain their dominance.
Only when exploitation becomes extremely obvious will the powerless object. 1. To each according to need.
In this kind of system , the basic economic needs of all the people are satisfied. These needs include food, housing, medical care, and education. Extravagant material possessions are not basic needs and have no place in this system.
2. To each according to want.
Wealth is distributed according to what people desire and request.Material possessions beyond the basic needs are now included.
3. To each according to what is earned.
People who live according to this system become themselves the source of their own wealth. If they earn a great deal of money, they can lavish extravagant possessions upon themselves. If they earn little, they must do without.
4. To each according to what can be taken.
By using whatever means everyone ruthlessly attempts to acquire as much wealth as possible without regard for the hardship that might be brought on others because of these actions. Those who are best at exploiting others become wealthy and powerful, and the others become the exploited and poor. There are at least four ways by which wealth can be distributed

Karl Marx who believed that all history has been the story of class conflict over material privilege and power. One group, the exploiters, strives to maintain its advantage over subordinate groups, the exploited . In a capitalist society, the struggle takes place between those who own the means of production- the capitalist or bourgeoisie and those who sell their labor- the workers or proletariat. According to Karl Marx's, the bourgeoisie maintain their position of dominance by controlling the economic life of the population. Conflict theory – maintains that stratification is the result of struggle among people for scarce rewards and that it persist in society because the “haves “ are determined and equipped to preserved their advantage by dominating and exploiting the “have nots”. Conflict theories consider stratification unjust and unnecessary.

The conflict theory stresses the link between stratification and ongoing struggle among competing groups and classes over limited supply of reward and resources. The Theories of Social Stratification 3. Self-fulfilling prophecies -once we categorize people through assigning a stereotype , our perception of their behavior is filtered through that stereotype. In short , we pay more attention to behaviors that fit the stereotype and we act toward the person as though he or she possesses the characteristics included in the stereotype.
4.Social comparisons – to compare themselves with others in order to establish for themselves what kind of people they are. Social scientist like Leon Festinger described the comparison process through which people learn how sociable, friendly, mean, or nasty they are when they are compared with other people. Attribution - play a very vital role in social stratification. It assigns to people different attributes as a result of differences.
Stereotype – one assumes that persons who fall into a particular category on the basis of certain characteristics also have many characteristics that we assume to belong to that category. Stereotypes may be harmful because they may lead to unfair treatment of people. The macro concept of social stratification Pictures that shows social stratification in the Society PREPARED BY: SUSAS, JETHER JED THANK YOU FOR LISTENING Success in life is always attached to upward social mobility. The high value placed upon activity, success and quantity will enable one to understand why success is related to social mobility.
The ff: maybe seen:
The emphasis upon activity is seen in all the major groups of our society.
The value of performance does not stand alone but must be somehow related to success. Social Mobility A shifting from role to role.
Role mobility maybe analyzed in three levels:
Every person enacts multiple roles, even while he remains a total, integrated personality.
There is normal successive assumption of new roles.
Occupational mobility causes shifting of roles. Role of Mobility Therefore, refers to the movement upward or downward among the social positions in any given stratification system.
Upward mobility- refers to the movement of individuals or groups from lower to higher status in a social stratification. Types of Social Mobility Power.

It is the ability to attain goals, control events
and maintain influence over others even in the face
of opposition.

In almost all societies the distribution of power is institutionalized so that some groups consistently have more power than others.
In poor countries , power is usually attributed to people who have the wealth and position.
People Empowerment- a movement aimed at liberating the poor people from their poverty, and the powerless people from their situation. Indicator of social Mobility The upper class. Members of the upper class have great wealth, often going back for many generations.
They recognize one another and are recognized by others by reputation and lifestyle. They usually have high prestige and a lifestyle that excludes those from other classes.

The upper-middle class. The upper-middle class is made up of successful business and professional people and their families. They are usually below the top in an organization hierarchy but still command a reasonably high income. These people often have a college education, own property, and often have money savings.

The lower-middle class. Lower- middle class shares characteristics with upper-middle class style but they have not been achieve the same lifestyle because of economic and educational shortcomings.
The working class. Working class is made up of factory workers and other blue-collar workers. These are people who keep the country’s machinery going. They are assembly –line workers, auto mechanics, and repair personnel. They live adequately but with little left over for luxuries .
The lower class. These are people at the bottom of the economic ladder. They have little in the way of education or occupational skills and are consequently either unemployed or underemployed. Lower- class families often have many problems , including broken homes, illegitimacy, criminal involvement, and alcholism. It can be observed that money ,power and prestige are unequally distributed among these classes. Typical of the class system

According to C. Wright Mills, “the heads of government, the military , and business in this country constitute a power elite, a handful of like-minded people who make decisions that determine how the rest of people will live.” Wealth and income.
The income of any family depends on what its members earn and what they own.
What people own is called Wealth, and is often inherited. It consists of the value of everything a person or group owns.
Income – refers to how much people get: it is the amount of money one person or group receives.
Both income and wealth are distributed unevenly in our society, but to a different degree. Dimension Stratification Differentiation – is refers to how things or people can be distinguished from one another. People may be differentiated on the basis of the colors of their skin , colors of hair, and the like.
Stratification – refers to the ranking of things or people. In closed stratification, people cannot change their rankings . In open stratification , people can change their ranking.
Stratification – refers to separating people or objects into categories. These categories are ranked as higher or lower. Social Stratification Systems The ranking of individuals and groups in any given society. It is a basic component of social organization. It is found in all human groups. It contains strata that share unequally in the distribution of societal rewards.
Social stratification may be viewed as a social structure as a social process, or a social problem. Social Stratification

Kingsley Davis elaborated the idea that stratification serves an important function in society. He was joined by Wilbert Moore. Their argument was the ff:

Wilbert Moore “If all the positions that have to be filled in a society were equally important and everyone were equally capable of doing their jobs, there would be no need of stratification. But this is not the case . Some task are clearly more necessary than others, and some require a great deal more talent and training.”

According to Davis and Moore , “societies must motivate people to seek socially important positions and to fill these positions conscientiously by rewarding those who do so with more of the things that contribute to subtenance and comfort, humor and diversion, self-respect and ego expansion.” The functionalist theory Inequality → refer to the situation in which the economic goods in a society are distributed unevenly among different groups is categories of people. Basic Concepts Of Inequality
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