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Transcript of Mt. Stromboli
Physical Features of Stromboli
By Alexander Welst
Positive and Negative Impacts of Stromboli
Location of Stromboli (In Depth)
It is classified as one of the eight Aeolian Islands.
The island of Stromboli resides on the Eurasian plate and is in a region known as the Calabrian Volcanic Arc
The Calabrian Volcanic Arc is formed through the subduction of the
This movement of plates is known as "convergent". This is when two plates are travelling in the same direction and collide, causing either a constructive (Rift Valley) or destructive (oceanic trench) landform. In the case of Stromboli, it is a destructive margin.
As the African plate is oceanic, it is to be the submergent (go beneath) plate. Because of this, the crust of the Oceanic plate melts due to friction and heat, therefore forming a Volcano on the Continental plate. This is due to the heat generated from the melted plate crust, causing build-ups of pressure beneath the surface of the Continental plate.
*Subduction of Oceanic plate
*Build up of pressure and heat from friction of both plates, oceanic begins to melt.
*Formation of Volcano (Natural way of dealing with copious amounts of pressure beneath the crust of Earth)
Stromboli is home to ~300 permanent residents
choose to live
by the coasts as
it would be unsafe
for them to live near
Stromboli’s eruptions are so distinct, it has its own eruption type, this one is known as a Strombolian eruption.
These eruptions consist of distinct bursts of fluid lava (usually basalt or basaltic andesite), from the mouth of the magma-filled summit crater.
These eruptions occur every few minutes, sometimes launching magma/lava into the air 100 meters. Although its eruptions are regular, they are not often major and are mainly thought of as a tourist attraction.
Stromboli has had only 3 eruptions which resulted in a pyroclastic flow, one of which went all the way into the sea. This eruption followed the path of Costa S. Vincenzo (Red Arrow on Map, left).
Basalt is black in appearance and is the most plentiful type of rock formed in the eruption of a composite volcano (Stromboli).
Basalt has a silica composition of ~50%.
Other rocks found less commonly surrounding the volcano include:
Basaltic Andesite is similar to Basalt, the difference is due to varying silica content, this rock has ~55% silica content.
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News.bbc.co.uk, (2002). BBC NEWS | Europe | In pictures: Stromboli blows its top. [online] Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2617583.stm [Accessed 27 Aug. 2014].
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Volcano.oregonstate.edu, (2014). What are some good things that volcanoes do? | Volcano World | Oregon State University. [online] Available at: http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/what-are-some-good-things-volcanoes-do [Accessed 28 Aug. 2014].
Volcano.si.edu, (2014). Global Volcanism Program | Stromboli. [online] Available at: http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=211040 [Accessed 22 Aug. 2014].
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*These are little 'globs' of hot lava and gas being propelled from the summit crater,
What type of volcano is Mt. Stromboli?
Mount Stromboli is regarded as a composite volcano/stratovolcano.
These volcanoes are formed through many layers of cooled lava and ash over thousands of eruptions.
Mt. Stromboli sits 924m above sea level.
Stromboli is also a delta, the most prevelent being Sciara del Fuoco and Costa s. Vincenzo. These two slopes are where sediment (rock and asu) meet to stream into the ocean (in some cases even lava).
*Lava flow will run down Sciara del Fuoco (other side) and run into ocean, therefore diverting lava from town.
* Looking north
Sciara del Fuoco
During the early stages of Stromboli’s ‘construction’, (about 5000 years ago; the Neostromboli eruptive period) a horseshoe shaped ‘scarp’ (the reinforcing wall against slope failures (when land gives way)). In the case of Stromboli, this feature diverts lava flow to the Northwest,
therefore diverting lava away from the village and towards the ocean.
This is land feature is due to the natural 'growth of the volcano. Sciara del Fuoco is formed form past volanic layers (ash, lava) collapsing and creating a slope.
This is a characteristic of a composite volcano.
*Lava naturally flows down
Sciara del Fuoco due to the slope.
*Land giving way
*Lava flow into ocean, away from towns
The craters are formed through release of pressure and gas buildup withing the volcano, these craters offer a release in that pressure which is beneficial in the long term for the volcano
The craters on Stromboli are located on the North-Easterly side of the volcano.
These craters are surrounded by cinder cones.
Due to this location, lava flow is less likely to spill over the East/West sides of the islands.
The Stromboli volcano has a total of 3 craters, with currently 5 exit points for lava.
The summit crater (being the south east) is the least active of the three
The North East is the second least active
The NW crater is the most active crater.
(Summit) SW Crater
Location of Stromboli
It resides to the North of Sicily and the West of Southern Italy.
The Island/Volcano is resides within the Tyrrhenian Sea
Seven other Islands formed through volcanic activity reside here aswell, they are known as the Aoelian Islands.
POSITIVE IMPACTS (NATURAL)
NEGATIVE IMPACTS (NATURAL)
POSITIVE IMPACTS (HUMAN)
NEGATIVE IMPACTS (HUMAN)
Stromboli regularly erupts (every 5 minutes for ~2000 years)
These eruptions are not violent and only release small amounts of lava at a time.
This is naturally beneficial as the volcano is constantly relieving pressure from the magma chamber, this reducest the pressure buildup and possible prevents larger eruptions from happening.
Regular eruptions are not violent and are self contained within the crater, posing little or no threat. (These smaller eruptions may still reach 100m into the air).
A small quantity of lava being erupted.
Sciara del Fuoco
, a natural diversion of lava from towns.
Long Term: The formation of Stromboli as an island.
Stromboli is a composite volcano, and in turn, this is how the island was formed. Through repeated layers going above one another, this process eventually formed the Island we know as Stromboli.
Countour lines may also indicate the stages in which the land was formed, highest being the first point to be created
If ashfall is too dense, crops and vegetation will be smothered by ash, causing unsuitable conditions for growth.
Whilst not an image of Mt. Stromboli, this image demonstrates the effects ash has on vegetation. The ash cakes up on vegetation, suffocating it therefore rendering crops useless.
Mt. St. Helens
Although Stromboli now imports the majority of their food, when people started inhabiting Stromboli, they would have had to cultivate their own food. Having ash build up would hinder them from making large quantities as their crops would suffocate.
As Stromboli has Cinder cones surrounding the craters, it is unlikely, but possible that an eruption will erupt with force great enough to actually 'blow' the cone's reinforcing walls off.
This poses a threat as these cones may end up being blown into the ocean, the force of which may cause a tsunami.
This is a demonstration of how a Cinder cone may be 'blown' off the Volcano.
After the eruption, the sides may 'blow' off and be flung far away, either in clumps or in some cases, large rock "bomb's"
The blue shaded area represents which other Aoelian islands may be at threat, should a Tsunami occur from a rock "bomb" striking the ocean on the Southerly side of Stromboli.
Islands that are immediately at risk are:
Stromboli (most at risk)
By the time the waves reach Salina and Lipari, it would not be considered dangerious, it would only cause high tide on the North easterly coasts of these islands.
These Tsunami's could however deliver much damage to the Island of Stromboli.
Increased awareness of volcano safety.
Volcanologists have studied Stromboli for it abnormal eruption patterns and have found that volcanos such as Stromboli are safer than ones such as Vesuvius as it releases pressure gradually rather than all at once.
By using this information, we are able to determine which Volcanoes may be more violent than others.
Large tourist industry
WIth Stromboli erupting so often, it is a desireable location for tourism.
On average, there are 7 boats a day which bring tourists from either mainland Italy or Sicily.
This allows the Island of Stromboli to afford for new infrastructure for the permanent residents and tourists of Stromboli.
Stromboli is a unique volcano, which, in turn helps volcanologists compare and discover how volcanos work with greater ease.
Because of this, we are also able to see
when a volcano tour/walk will be safe, if seismic activity increases, thus a more lucrative tourism industry.
Classification of 'Strombolian' eruptions.
Much like increased awareness, having Stromboli as an easily accessible volcano (not very dangerous), they are able to study the tendencies of the volcanoes.
In this way, they are able to group volcanoes together based on their eruption type and formation type.
Decreased revenue for the island of Stromboli
This would only effect the island if in a time of danger, for example the 2002-2003 eruption.
The loss of revenue would come from having to shut down the islands main source of revenue, the tourism industry.
Annoyance to permanent residents
Although Stromboli rarely has violenr eruptions that put the residents at risk, there are few moments in which evacuation is necessary.
When an evacuation is necessary, it is often painstaking for the residents as they must leave all of their belongings and seek refuge either on mainland Italy/Sicily, or one of the other eight Aoelian Islands.
The destruction of property is also another factor the residents would have to deal with.
When a Major eruption does occur, ash clouds pose a threat to humans breathing, if not addressed, this may cause residents to suffocate. Build up of ash may also take time to clean, causing Stromboli to close (tourism) until they have cleaned up the island of ash. (2002 eruption)
During times of evacuation it must be carried out quickly, because of this alot of government dollars is spent on either using helicopters or boats to evacuate the Island.
Tsunami's effect on humans
Whilst the possibilites of Tsunami's may be a natural occurence, it may have devastating results on the human aspect of the island. (See Natural Impacts)
Examples of this include the 2002 eruption in which a part of a scoria cone the size of a 60 story building was blown into the ocean and caused a Tsunami.
Site of impact
Tsunami continued in a Easterly direction
Struck the West side of the Northerly Town, destroying a few houses and sparking the evacuation of Stromboli.
Scoria clone was blown off.
Part of cone (about 60 stories high) was sent flying into the ocan to the North of the island, just off the coast of the town of Stromboli.
There is a strong spatial association between the volcanic island of Stromboli and the fault line between the Eurasion and African Plate. Other examples of islands being formed due to this plate movement are the other 7 Aoelian Islands.
The submersion of the African plate under the Eurasian plate cause volcanic landforms to occur on the Eurasian plate.
We can see that the African plate and Eurasian are intercepting around the region of Italy, this created the Aoelian Islands.
Red Dots indicate Seismic Activity
Green dots indicate Lesser activity
Yellow triangles indicate Volcanoes
From the map, we can see that 75% of volcanoes (in southern Italy)are formed within 40km of the fault line.
The exception of which is Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia
These volcanoes are in a liner fashion, going North to South or vice-versa. This may indicate a plate fracture in this direction.
There is a very strong level of spatial interaction between the island of Stromboli and Mainland Italy/Sicily.
The strong spatial interaction is due to the massive tourist industry Stromboli creates (amongst other things).
Everyday, 7 boats come and go from Stromboli to mainland Italy/Sicily for JUST tourism, many of which stay at local hotels overnight.
These are the routes boats may take when 'interacting' with Stromboli. (Dotted lines)
Ginostra is the more 'local' side of Stromboli and is the fishing town. At the docks of Ginostra, trade is conducted for fish and seafood caught at Stromboli. This is then to be transported to other Islands or Mainland Italy/Sicily.
As Stromboli's land is no longer suitable for cultivation, the island must import foods in order to sustain not only the local residents, but also the large amount of tourism the island recieves.
The Town of Stromboli is the more commerical/ tourism side.
Stromboli resides 63 kilometres from both Millazzo (Sicily) and Tropea (Italy). These two towns are where most trade is done, however, cruises are offered from larger cities/towns for tourism, for example, Naples to Stromboli (Ferry).
SPATIAL CHANGE OVER TIME
There has been a great change over time to both the volcano (Scoria cones much less present) and the towns (expansion and accomadation of tourism).
TAKEN: 2003 (February)
TAKEN: 2014 (March)
TAKEN: 2003 (February)
TAKEN: 2014 (March)
Few years after (9 years), we can see that the ash cloud emitting from the crater is reduced significantly. This is due to gradual eruptions rather than ones that occur in one large eruptions.
Because of this, the air quality as compared to 9 years ago has increased signifcanty. Inhaling volcanic ash can be harmful, especially when hot.
The colouration of the volcano has also changed. Although camera technology may have changed (e.g. lighting condition, time of day), it is evident that another layer of ash has settled over the previous. This is how the formation of composite volcanoes work.
The image on the left was taken after the 2002 eruption (December), we can see the ash and smoke coming from the crater travelling in a North Westerly direction.
Different texture of ash, from new rocks/ash being piled upon one another.
These images are 9 years apart of the village of Ginostra. In these 9 years, there has been the addition of a new dock area.
This addition was most likely made for the influx of tourism. Whilst Stromboli was still a popular tourism destination in 2003, they may have only had the money to build new infrastructure.
This dock would also allow the current residents greater ease in the trade of seafood which is vital to the island as they must meet the demand of the tourism requirements (e.g. stock/food levels).
TAKEN: 2003 (February)
TAKEN: 2014 (March)
As the tourism industry continues to grow, the islanders must sacrifice land to meet the demands of the ever-growing industry.
Pre-2014, this part was without a hotel, but now with the increased level of tourism activity, the island had no choice but to increase the amount of accomodation for tourism.
These images are the "tourist" part of Stromboli, more specifically, one of the hotels.
There is also a decreased sea level as evident by the dock that was once sitting over water, to the same one sitting over sand (volcanic). This could be due to climate change.
Prominent past eruptions, for example the 1930 and 2002-2003 eruptions have caused destruction to the island of Stromboli. Should Stromboli suffer yet another 'major' eruption, it is important that the Italian government is prepared and has a plan to minimalize the negative impacts a violent eruption from Stromboli may have.
Ideal evacutaion sites
Closed off sites
In order to ensure the safety of the residents, the whole island must be evacuated (possible Tsunami's have greater damage than lava)
Evacuation would be carried out by either Helicopters or Boat. (Method proved effective by 2002 eruption, whole island was evacuated and no casualties.
During the time of evacuation, majority of the inland island is to be off-limits to reduce direct-impact injures (falling rocks).
Set up Tsunami watch/detecting across all 7 of the other Aoelian islands.
Depending on size of Tsunami, greater precautions may need to be in place (e.g. sandbagging).
If necessary, residents of Stromboli will need to move to Panarea to avoid the falling ash and rocks. (Past eruptions have proven Panarea to be safe from the Tsunami's reach.).
*To mainland Italy (Tropea)
In order to have an effective management plan, we must first detect when and how large the eruption will be.
Emergency drinking water and rations would need to be delivered to the location of refuge (Strombolian residents) in order to keep them nourished.
*Get supplies from Milazzo
A volcano that is about to erupt will increase in size due to the pressure, but measuring the geophysical features we are able to tell of the state of the volcano.
Detection of ground deformation is yet another vital part of detecting the characteristics of a volcano. By carrying out this research, we are able to tell where lava will flow, thus allowing government to create a more effective management plan. (e.g. Sciara Del Fuoco diverting lava away from towns.)
By measuring composition of water around the volcano, we are able to tell when a volcano is more likely to erupt. This is because of runoff. When an eruption is about to happen, there will be a larger amount of sulfur being emitted, by measuring water composition we can measure the amount of sulfur and make predictions on the state of the volcano.
By detecting levels of different minerals in the air, we are able to tell whether or not a volcano will erupt soon (possible venting of ash and sulfur).
With such pressure in a volcano, there will be seismic activity, an increased seismic activity will signify a volcanoes eagerness to erupt.
By using remote sensing, we are able to scan the landform and create 3d models where we can inspect the volcano from a distance and establish plans safely, this is known as inSAR (depth measured by time taken for light to go to ground and back).
Past eruptions (Stromboli) have proven to be not as violent as others, in this way, the reconstruction or recovery may not be as hard as thought.
In the 2002 eruption, air quality was poor as a result of the ash being propelled into the atmosphere, keeping this in mind, the tourism industry may suffer a loss in revenue.
*Ash cloud moving overhead, preventing healthy breathing conditions.
Only a few properties where destroyed as a result of the Tsunami, these were fixed very quickly, and with Stromboli being a popular tourist destination, there is no doubt the island will want to fix it up as soon as possible.
Documentaries will undoubtedly be made on Stromboli and its latest eruption.
In turn, this will help promote the island and the idea of it being a tourist destination.
Cleanup will occur, and within a few months, the island will be more desireable to visit as visiting a newly erupted volcano is something many want to see.
Even if the volcano erupts in a South Easterly direction, it will be cought by the Scoria cone that towers over the crater, forcing it to run down Sciara del Fuoco
TIMELINE OF MAJOR EVENTS
STROMBOLI HAS HAD CONSTANT (MINOR) ERUPTION FOR THE PAST 2000 YEARS (ONE EVERY 5 MINUTES)
Arable land destroyed
This may have resulted in famine for those living on Stromboli for lack of
crops and therefore food. Seafood would have been an integral part of their cuisine during these times.
*Area of land continuing formation
Stromboli was now erupting every 5 or so minutes, this helped with the formation of the island.
Strong explosions, pyroclastic flows and destruction of arable land.
One of the first
eruptions recorded, this eruption resulted in a pyroclastic flow which is essentially a landslide of smouldering hot ash and rocks.
Had the town of Stromboli be in the path of the pyroclastic flow, damage such as this may have occured.
Strong Explosions, ashfalls, ejection of pumice; Tsunami
With an eruption resulting in ashfall and Tsunami's, it would mean a significant amount of rock was blown off the crater and into the ocean/surround areas.
Tsunami was caused by the ejction of large rocks.
Large 'bombs' hit Stromboli and Ginostra villages, ash to sicily, tsunami; four people killed and several injured
As a result of these large rocks hitting villages, four resident were killed, this eruption produced large amounts of ash which degraded the air quality. Rock was launched into the ocean causing yet another Tsunami, damaging even more property.
Largest eruption, pyroclastic flows to sea, numerous buildings destroyed, lava flows; SIX people killed and 22 injured.
The 1930 eruption is the largest eruption of Stromboli, and in turn had devastating effects. Pyroclastic flows rendered cultivation useless aswell as large rocks raining down on the villages killing 6 people in total. An ash cloud was also produced, which was luckily blown North East into the sea (missing populated land).
2 Rock bodies seperate from volcano, causing a Tsunami which destroyed several buildings; no deaths, whole island was evacuated. Ash cloud was present.
Lava flowing downt he sides into the sea, this is how new land is made.
Plume of ash blowing North East into the Tyrrhenian Sea
This eruption, althought very violent, was one of the least harmful. This is due to the advance in technology. Volcanologists were able to figure out when the Volcano would erupt. Because of this, they had evacuated the whole Island, there where no deaths. This eruption is a good indication of how well a management plan may reduce the negative impacts of an eruptions.
As the island was effectively evacuated, ash polution was not a significant problem as no inhabitants where affected.
This volcano is infact Krakatoa (Hawaii), many other volcanos are now listed as having "Strombolian" Eruptions.
*Heavy particles will fall to ground
Magma flows from the resevoir up and out of the volcano.
Radio broadcasts/tv stations would air warnings.