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Consequences of the Mongol invasion on India, China, and Russia

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on 29 November 2012

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Transcript of Consequences of the Mongol invasion on India, China, and Russia

What do most historians think of the Mongols? MS.6.WH.5 Compare and contrast the consequences of the Mongol invasion on India, China and Russia Who were the Mongols? What happened in India? Turks and Mongols: 6th - 13th century AD
Mongol derived from mong, meaning "brave" or "bold."
The Mongol khans traced to old royal race of the Turks
from very early period were masters of the Mongolian desert for a long time mongols "had made their home, leading a miserable nomadic life in the midst of a wild and barren country
sudden eruption of the Mongols from their homeland
astonishing expansion, spanning the breadth of Asia,
precisely dated (to the early years of the 13th century)
attributed to the military genius of one man - born with the name of Temujin, but known now as Genghis Khan attacks on India attempted to prepare for one part of their program of world-conquest
expansionist activities
sent relatively small forces to frontier zones to devastate adjacent powers
to encourage submission
preparation for a large-scale invasion
In the 1200s, the Mongols under Genghis Khan tried to conquer northern India.
For a while they succeeded. Mongols in Russia Mongol invasion onIndia, China & Russia Who is Genghis Khan? born, in about 1167
Mongols- one among many nomadic tribes competing in the eastern steppes.
his father, chieftain of a small clan, is poisoned when he is eight
clan casts out the widow and her young children, who have to forage for their own food - wild plants, small animals and sometimes even mice. This illustrates his lowly origins (turning an occasional mouse into a way of life)
By the time of his death, in 1227, Genghis Khan's rule extends from the Caspian to the northern coast of China. takes him the first twenty-five years of his fighting life to win a position of power among his own people
Battles within his clan
against other Mongol and neighbouring tribes
occupy him until the age of about forty.
1206 - acclaimed tribal leader
title Genghis Khan - 'all-encompassing chief'. free to direct the energy of his people outwards. conditions and outcome of the Mongol attacks on India
Delhi Sultanate matched their numbers
forces sufficient to meet the Mongols in equal if not superior numbers
the Delhi cavalry, armored (men and horses both) and armed for either missile or shock combat, riding grain-fed horses larger than the Mongol ponies
Delhi cavalrymen-better soldiers than the Mongols Mongol Rule Ever wonder when and where all of the empires existed? And how large they grew? The Mongols & Genghis Khan Summary:
The Mongols adapted to a difficult physical environment (the steppes)
The expansion of the Mongol empire resulted in significant increases in trade and travel between Europe and Asia
The purpose of the Great Wall was to protect the Chinese from the nomadic tribes [e.g. the Mongols] of northern and central Asia
•In less than 50 years, it was the largest unified land empire in history.
•In 1279, it was the first foreign group to gain complete control of China.
•It made the caravan routes across Asia safe for trade and travel.
•When attempting to conquer Japan in 1274 and 1281, its fleets were destroyed by storms Chronology of Mongol Empire 1206-1227 Reign of Chinggis Khan

1211-1234 Conquest of northern China

1219-1221 Conquest of Persia

1237-1241 Conquest of Russia

1258 Capture of Baghdad

1264-1279 Conquest of southern China Summary of the Mongols Mongol era- many political influences on China
brought power changes and reforms in both of the states (Russia & China)
khans, referred to as “Great Leaders:"
ruled both states after initial conquest
caused a shift in the central power of the government
destroyed cities and forms of government rule even though many of the cities had initially surrendered
thus using terror tactics as a form of governing. Mongol Invasion and Influences on China positive aspects of their rule of China
initiate many policies
supported/helped Chinese economy, social, political life in China.
China exported large amounts of silk and porcelain
economy was fairing well
strong support of peasants
success of the peasant economy = more money for all
fixed system of taxation (peasants)=no more unpredictable payments
extraordinary public works projects and a postal station
mongols valued artisans--gave them higher social status
improved social status of merchants and traders
instituted a new legal code in China that was much more innovative and flexible
moved capital to Beijing
causing Beijing to be the center of politics and commerce
East and West Worlds are finally connected by series of routes, trade, & religion
goods and ideas are quickly spread Khubilai Khan in China negative aspects of their rule in China brought violence and destruction
population decreased during Mongol Rule
distrustful of Chinese influences
barbarians interested primarily in maiming, plundering, destroying, and killing
eliminated civil service examinations
restructured chinese social structure putting the native chinese on the very bottom:
Mongols at the top
the non-Han, mostly Islamic population that was brought to China by the Mongols to help them rule
third were the northern Chinese
and at the very bottom of the rung were the southern Chinese. Positive influence of Mongols in Russia Mongols formed an alliance with the Orthodox Church
fused government and church
gave more political power to the church
this is different than in China
East and West Worlds are finally connected by series of routes, trade, & religions
goods and ideas are quickly spread
mongols had INDIRECT rule, independent principalities paying tribute to mongols
began to grow with the Mongols’ implementation of:
postal system, financial structures, & census.
Moscow became a cultural & economic center.
Centralization politically
Protected Russia from attacks Russia’s economy and trade crashed and had to restart in agricultural affairs after Mongolian Rule
Russia cut off from political, economic, and intellectual development
left Russia more divided culturally
less developed than Western European nations Negative effects of Mongol invasion on Russia The MONGOLS can be described as:
"the Mongol Empire controlled a large portion of Asia,”
“the Mongols controlled territory from eastern China to eastern Europe,”
“it was the largest unified land empire in history,”
“The Mongol Empire ruled peoples from China, Russia, eastern Europe, and India”
Kublai Khan and Genghis Khan extended Mongol influence to other parts of Asia
The Mongols employed superior military skills to create a vast empire
As a result of the Mongol invasions of Russia, the Russian people were cut off from most of western Europe
Russian leaders adopted the idea of strong, centralized control of the empire from the Mongols
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