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Total War: A Changing Society
Transcript of Total War: A Changing Society
African Americans in WWII
Women in the Workforce
WWII is the first time women were permitted to volunteer for the armed forces
could only hold non-combat roles (accountants, bookkeepers, drivers, radio operators)
Served in all branches
WACS: Women's Armed Corp Services
WAVES: Women in the Navy
WAFS: Women in the air force
Women in the Armed Services
Women in WWII
very strict guidelines for women to serve in the military
Had to be age 29-40
Could not have children under the age of 14
Minimum of two years of high school
continuing the Great Migration
1.5 million African Americans left the south for jobs in the north and west
1 million left home to serve in the armed forces (in segregated units)
both civilians and soldiers continued to face discrimination and segregation
Why does this matter today?
Double V Campaign
Victory over fascism abroad
Victory over prejudice and discrimination at home
New Civil Rights organization created in 1942: CORE (Congress of Racial Equality
purpose was to become more active in advocating for equality
pioneered the strategy of nonviolent direct action
What would you do?
"The world's greatest democracy fought the world's greatest racist with a segregated army."
Despite facing discrimination in the US, African Americans were willing to fight for their country and for democracy abroad.
73% of the adult male population served overseas during the war
this left a lot of industrial jobs that needed to be filled for the war effort
jobs in shipyards, defense plants, etc.
five million women entered the workforce
did the same jobs as men and ensured the continued war effort... but received 60% less pay
Rosie the Riveter
What are some similarities?
What are some differences?
Why do you think the image on the right became the lasting symbol of women in the workforce?
What happens when the men come home?
WWII is often regarded as a turning point for the civil rights and women's rights movements.
Do you think WWII create progressive social change at home?
"Victory gardens" accounted for about 40% of the vegetables consumed during the war
symbol of feminism and women's economic power
traditional ideas of roles of women in the workforce were tested
set limits on gas, sugar, coffee, fat, butter, produce, oil, and clothing
June, 1941, FDR reluctantly signs executive order 8802
created the Fair Employment Practices Committee
“there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin.”
Women also served abroad in the Red Cross, Army Nurse Corps, Navy Nurse Corps
Millions worked for the Civilian Defense as air-raid wardens, fire watchers, drivers, and auxiliary police
To what extent is it acceptable to limit a citizen's civil liberties in the interest of national security?