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HHD UNIT 3 AOS 1 Part 2 (SAC 2)

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Casey Hawley

on 15 February 2016

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Transcript of HHD UNIT 3 AOS 1 Part 2 (SAC 2)

UNIT 3 AOS 1 (PART 2)
NATIONAL HEALTH PRIORITY AREAS
Collaborative initiative endorsed by the
Federal Government
and all State and Territory Governments.

Focuses on
diseases and conditions
that have a
major impact
on health of Australians.

The
NHPAs
represent the disease groups with the
largest BOD
and
potential costs
to the Australian community.
KEY KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS

The National Health Priority Areas (NHPAs) including:
Key features
and
reasons
for
selection
of each NHPA

Determinants
that act as risk factors

Direct, indirect and intangible
costs
to
individuals
and
communities
of NHPAs

Identify and explain
One health promotion
program relevant to each NHPA

OBESITY
ASTHMA
DIABETES MELLITUS
OUTCOME
Discuss the role of the National Health Priority Areas (NHPA's) in improving Australia's health status"
CANCER CONTROL
DEMENTIA
ARTHRITIS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS
"Understanding Australia's Health"
INJURY PREVENTION AND CONTROL
MENTAL HEALTH
Arthritis and Musculoskeletal conditions ----->
Osteoarthritis ----- Rheumatoid arthritis ----- Osteoporosis ----- Juvenile arthritis

Injury prevention and control ----->
Injury

Cancer Control ----->
Tumour ----- Benign ----- Malignant ----- Prostate ----- Breast ----- Colorectal ----- Lung ----- Melanoma ---- Non Melanoma ----- Cervix ----- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
KEY WORDS
NHPA's
M-A-D-D-C-O-M-I-C
REASONS FOR SELECTION...

Approximately 321,600 Australians had dementia in 2011,

Due to aging population, the number of people with dementia will
reach almost 400,000 by 2020, and around 900,000 by 2050.

Estimates suggest that, in 2011, there were at least 200,000 informal carers of people with dementia living in the community, and many of these were providing 40 or more hours of care per week.

Dementia was the third leading cause of death in 2010, with an
average of 25 people dying from dementia every day.
DEMENTIA OVERVIEW...

“Dementia  is not a single specific condition. Rather, it is an umbrella term that describes over 100 conditions that are characterised by progressive and irreversible loss brain function. Dementia will interfere with language, memory, perception, personality and cognitive skills. “
N
ational Health Priority Areas (NHPA’s) ----->
Mental Health ----- Asthma ----- Diabetes Mellitus ----- Dementia ----- Cardiovascular Health ----- Obesity ---- Arthritis & Musculoskeletal conditions -----Injury prevention & control ----- Cancer Control

Costs (Individual/Community) ----->
Direct ----- Indirect ----- Intangible

Determinant ----->
Biological ----- Behavioural ----- Social ----- Physical Environment

Health Promotion Campaigns
----->
Health Promotion
KEY WORDS
DIRECT:
"Costs associated with providing health services such a diagnosing and treatment to people suffering from the disease.


Individual costs
:
E.g. Surgery/ tests/Doctor visits/ambulance transport/hospital fees/medicine
Community costs:

E.g. Medicare/PBS/Health Promotion campaigns

INDIRECT:
"Costs not directly related to the diagnosis and treatment but do occur as a result of the person having the disease.

Individual:
E.g. Loss of work income/ paying for a cleaner or gardener
Community:
E.g. Loss of productivity and work volume/ Social security payments


INTANGIBLE:
"Costs that cannot be measured physically or with monetary measure".
Individual:

E.g. pain and suffering, stress, low self esteem, social exclusion.

Community:

E.g. Loss of participation in activities/ Emotional suffering

COSTS
DIRECT:
INDIVIDUAL:
Medication (e.g antidepressants) and Counseling
COMMUNITY:
PBS, Medicare, implementing mental health promotion programs

INDIRECT :
I
NDIVIDUAL:

Unable to work. therefore losing income
COMMUNITY:
Loss productivity if unable to work, Social Security payments, family taking time off to work

INTANGIBLE:
I
NDIVIDUAL/COMMUNITY::
.
Family and individual suffering feeling isolated sad.
Everyone in society feels the impact of mental illness.

MENTAL HEALTH COSTS
Almost all Australians are affected at some stage
45% Australians will experience mental illness personally or indirectly

One of the leading causes of morbidity (YLD - Non Fatal).
13% total BOD 2010 (3rd)

Can be easily treated and prevented.
MENTAL HEALTH
REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION

ANXIETY
Feelings of worry or nervousness when faced with a threat, danger or a stressful situation. Can also cause an increased heart rate and shortness of breath.

There are a range of anxiety disorders including:
- Social phobias
- Specific phobias (E.g. claustrophobia)
- Panic disorders
- Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
KEY FEATURES

DEPRESSION
Mental illness that can result in the feeling of sadness and hopelessness, loss of interest in activity and
reduced capacity to function over an

extended period.

Cause of depression is usually as a result of an interaction of determinants…Identify determinants that could possibly lead to depression?
MENTAL HEALTH: KEY FEATURES

“State of wellbeing in which every individual realises his/her potential, can cope with normal stresses, work productively and can make contribution to the community.”

MENTAL ILLNESS
“Disturbance of feelings and thoughts that affects behaviour and functioning.”

E.G Depression/Anxiety/Panic Disorder/Bipolar/Eating Disorder

MENTAL HEALTH OVERVIEW


SOCIAL
Socioeconomic status
Social exclusion
Work
Unemployment
Stress
Early life experiences


NEED TO BE ABLE TO ELABORATE ABOUT ANY OF THE ABOVE DETERMINANTS AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY MAY CAUSE AN INCREASED RISK OF THE CONDITION


MENTAL HEALTH DETERMINANTS
MENTAL HEALTH CAMPAIGNS

BIOLOGICAL
Bodyweight:
Obesity could develop if a person eats in response to depressive symptoms. Or Depression could result due low self esteem due to large body weight.

Genetic predisposition:
People with mental illness in the family are more likely to develop a mental illness at some stage.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BEHAVIOURAL
Substance abuse: (Alcohol/Smoking/drugs)
Smokers are more likely to have mental health problems

Physical activity
Releases hormones (endorphins) that reduce stress and assist in maintaining mental health
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PHYSICAL ENVIRNMENT
Natural Disasters
Fires/floods/drought could stress and anxiety and reduce mental health

Housing
Living in overcrowded housing can increase risk of psychological distress
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sOCIAL
SES
Low SES increases risk of mental illness as people of low SES generally drink more, smoke more and ave poorer housing

WORK/UNEMPLOYMENT
Work related stress can lead to depressive symptoms. Being unemployed can also lead to stress and anxiety as they may not be able to provide for themselves or their family.
ASTHMA COSTS


Leading contributor to BOD in those aged 0-14
(18.4%)

2.5 million Australians suffer from Asthma –
(10.3% population - 1/6 children and 1/10 adults)

You can live a normal/health life if you monitor and manage the situation

Most common hospital admission for children
ASTHMA: REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION
ASTHMA: OVERVIEW
"Condition characterised by inflammation of the airways, which causes them to narrow and makes it difficult to breathe"

ASTHMA HEALTH PROMOTION CAMPAIGNS
DIRECT:
Doctor appointments (I) Hospital (I)/Medication (I), Medicare (C), PBS (C), Health Promotion campaigns (C
)

INDIRECT:
Lost productivity (C), lost tax revenue (C), lost income (I) and cost of carers (C).

INTANGIBLE:
Increased anxiety (I/C), frustration of not being able to participate in activities (I).

NEED TO BE ABLE TO ELABORATE ABOUT ANY OF THE ABOVE DETERMINANTS AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY MAY CAUSE AN INCREASED RISK OF THE CONDITION
ASTHMA DETERMINANTS
ASTHMA: KEY FEATURES
No cure, however it can be controlled by ventolin.

A severe attack can result in hospitalisation and in some cases death.
BIOLOGICAL
Body weight/Genetic predisposition/Sex/Age

BEHAVIOURAL
Smoking

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Air quality/Work environment, Housing

SOCIAL
Low SES/Early life experiences
DEMENTIA CAMPAIGN
DEMENTIA COSTS TO THE INDIVIDUAL (II) AND AND COMMUNIITY (C)

DIRECT:
E.G. Medication (I) PBS (C), Medicare (C)

INDIRECT :
E.G. Inability to work by individual or family (I and C), Paying for services – cleaners (I)

INTANGIBLE:
E.G. Family and individual suffering (I and C)/feeling isolated (I), Stress and anxiety (I)
DEMENTIA DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL

Age/Sex/Genetic predisposition/Blood Presure/Body weight

BEHAVIOURAL
Tobacco Use/Physical Inactivity/Alcohol/Food intake
DEMENTIA KEY FEATURES...

ALZHEIMER DISEASE
Most common form. Occurs as a result of a build up of proteins both in and around the brains. Results in memory loss, reduction in ability to think, express emotions.

VASCULAR DEMENTIA
Occurs as a result of reduced blood flow to the brain, due to a stroke or series of strokes. Results in problems with attention, spatial awareness, planning, reasoning and judgment.

DEMENTIA WITH LEWY BODIES
Caused by spherical proteins known as lewy bodies and cause the degeneration and death of nerve cells. Very similar symptoms to alzheimers.

FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA
Progressive damage to two specific parts of the brain (Frontal/Temperol). Can result in displaying inappropriate behaviours and language issues

DEMENTIA DETERMINANTS

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Environmental tobacco smoke/Access to recreational facilities/air quality/work environment

SOCIAL
Level of education/Social exclusion
Your Brain matters
DIABETES CAMPAIGNS
DIABETES MELLITUS OVERVIEW

“Metabolic chronic condition that results in body not being able to utilise blood glucose correctly. “

Huge impact on the health of Australians and results in a range of disabilities that reduce quality of life, life expectancy and can cause complications with pregnancy.
DIABETES MELLITUS KEY FEATURES

TYPE 1:
Occurs when the
pancreas cannot produce enough insulin
, therefore not allowing glucose to travel from the blood to the cells. The ‘missing’ insulin has to be replaced, resulting in life-long daily injections.

TYPE 2:
The
pancreas makes insulin, but it does not work as effectively
as it should and upsets the balance of glucose in the body. Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes representing approximately 85-90% of people with diabetes in Australia.

GESTATIONAL:
Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that
occurs in around 5% of pregnancies
and is diagnosed when higher than normal blood glucose levels appear for the first time during pregnancy.

MEASURE UP
LIFE! Taking Action on diabetes
DIABETES DETERMINANTS
DIABETES COSTS

DIRECT:
E.g. Doctors (I)/Medication (I)/Health Promotion programs (C), Medicare (C), PBS (C)

INDIRECT:
E.g. Social security payments (C)/Loss productivity (I)/Carer payments (I)

INTANGIBLE:
Frustration over having to make decisions to make changes (I), loss of self esteem (I), anxiety about the possibility that the condition could progress (I)

DIABETES MELLITUS REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION

Recent increase in the number of people with diabetes (Epidemic proportion over 800,000).

3rd most frequently managed condition.

Leading contributor to the BOD. Ranked 6th, contributing to 6.2% of total DALY’s.

Type 2 is projected to be the leading cause of BOD by 2023.

Aboriginal have almost 3 times as high (11% V 4%) when compared with other Australians.

Gestational diabetes occurs in 5% pregnancies.

BEHAVIOURAL
Tobacco/Excessive alcohol consumption/Dietary behavior/Physical inactivity

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Acess to recreation facilities/Work environment

SOCIAL
Socioeconomic status/Work/Food security/Transport/Early life experiences
BIOLOGICAL
Overweight/Obese/High blood pressure/High cholesterol/Genetic predisposition/Impaired glucose regulation/Age
CHOOSE 1 PROGRAM AND BE ABLE TO BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM AND HOW IT IS ADVERTISING ITS MESSAGE.
NEED TO BE ABLE TO ELABORATE ABOUT ANY OF THE ABOVE DETERMINANTS AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY MAY CAUSE AN INCREASED OR /DECREASED RISK OF THE CONDITION
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH: COSTS

DIRECT:
Ambulance transport (I), Blood Pressure medication (I), Bypass surgery (I), Cardiovascular health promotion campaigns (C), Medicare (C), PBS (C)


INDIRECT:
Altering living conditions – installing ramps (I), Paying for services – cleaning/mowing lawns (I), social security payments (C)


INTANGIBLE:
Pain and suffering associated with reoccurring symptoms (I), associated mental health issues (I), significant life style changes which may result in isolation (I), family stress and anxiety (C)
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH:
REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION

3.4 Million Australians suffer from CVD
(2nd leading cause of BOD)

Leading cause of death
(32%)

CVD kills 1 Australian every 10 Minute.

About 1 stroke occurs every 12 Minutes in Australia.

CVD most expensive disease group in terms of DIRECT health care, 11.2% health system expenditure.

Can be prevented and managed with lifestyle alteration.
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH VIDEOS

CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH: OVERVIEW

"Health of the heart and blood vessels"

Environmental and genetic factors contribute to poor cardiovascular health.

Despite many medical advances, CVD’s are still a leading cause of mortality and morbidity.

All CVD’s are caused by atherosclerosis (build up of plaque in blood vessels), which restricts blood flow and hence oxygen to parts of the body
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH: KEY FEATURES

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) involves all diseases of the heart and/or blood vessels.

Most common CVD’s in Australia are:
Coronary Heart Disease:
narrowing/blockage of artery
Stroke:

lack of oxygen to brain, causing rapid loss of brain function
Hypertension:

high blood pressure
Peripheral vascular disease:

disease of arteries outside heart and brain

CHOOSE 1 PROGRAM AND BE ABLE TO BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM AND HOW IT IS ADVERTISING ITS MESSAGE.
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH CAMPAIGNS

CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH: DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL
Body weight/High blood pressure/Genetic predisposition/Gender/Hormones/Age

BEHAVIOURAL
Tobacco smoking/Excessive alcohol/Insufficient physical activity/Poor nutrition

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Environmental tobacco smoke/Access to recreational facilities/Air pollution/Work environment

SOCIAL
Socioeconomic status/Social exclusion/Unemployment/Food security/Stress/Early life experiences




OBESITY COSTS
DIRECT:
Weight management plans (I)/medication (I & C)/health promotion programs (C)
Costs are hard to put specific dollar as obesity usually presents as other conditions.

INDIRECT:
Loss of income (I)/loss of productivity (C)/ welfare and other government payments (C), paying carers to assist with home duties (I)

INTANGIBLE:
Effects on mental health (I), sleep disturbance (I), lack of energy (I), feelings of loneliness (I) and social exclusion (I)

OBESITY: REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION
3 Million Australians are obese and 7 million overweight

Responsible for 7.5% of total BOD in 2003

Current trends continue 1/3 adults will be obese by 2025.

Cost is significant to the Australian Community

Risk factor for many chronic conditions such as CVD, osteoarthritis, cancers, depression and type 2 diabetes

Can be a condition that could be prevented
OBESITY: OVERVIEW AND KEY FEATURES

“Condition of excess body weight in the form of fat“ and is the term used to describe the condition of a person whose BMI is greater than 30 or waist measurement of more than 89cm in women and 102cm in men."

CALCULATING YOUR BMI
BMI = Weight (kg)/m2

BMI of 25 – 30 often defined as being overweight.
CHOOSE 1 PROGRAM AND BE ABLE TO BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM AND HOW IT IS ADVERTISING ITS MESSAGE.

OBESITY CAMPAIGNS
OBESITY DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL
Age: metabolism slows, Genetics, Hormonal disturbance

BEHAVIOURAL
Excessive alcohol, Insufficient physical activity, Poor nutrition (energy dense diet)

PHYSICAL
Access to recreation facilities, work environment

SOCIAL
Socioeconomic status (SES), Food security, Stress,
Early life experiences

NEED TO BE ABLE TO ELABORATE ABOUT ANY OF THE ABOVE DETERMINANTS AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY MAY CAUSE AN INCREASED OR /DECREASED RISK OF A CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITION
ARTHRITIS/MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS COSTS

DIRECT:
Doctors/Specialist fees (I and C), Surgery/Hospital fees (I and C), Medication costs (I and C), Exercise programs (I)

INDIRECT:
Loss of productivity (C), Welfare payments (C), paying for carers (I), family taking time off work (I)

INTANGIBLE:
Anxiety (I), Isolation and loneliness (I), Low self esteem (I) and family pain and suffering (C)
Severe impact of pain and suffering.
ARTHRITIS/ MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS:
REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION

Lead high rates of morbidity (YLD’s)

Account for 5% of the BOD in Australia

More than 3 million people (15%) have some form of arthritis

700,000 Australians have osteoporosis in 2011

18% females and 12% males have arthritis
ARTHRITIS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS:
OVERVIEW AND KEY FEATURES

ARTHRITIS
“Inflammation of the joint. Different forms of arthritis are part of a group of disorders called musculoskeletal conditions that affect muscles, bones and joints.”

Associated with considerable pain, discomfort and disability.

Read and give an overview of the focus areas of arthritis and the various musculoskeletal disorders:
Osteoarthritis/Rheumatoid arthritis/Osteoporosis/Juvenile arthritis
CHOOSE 1 PROGRAM AND BE ABLE TO BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM AND HOW IT IS ADVERTISING ITS MESSAGE.
ARTHRITIS/ MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS CAMPAIGNS
ARTHRITIS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL
Body weight/Sex (Females)/Age/Genetics

BEHAVIOURAL
Tobacco/Alcohol intake/Physical activity/Diet/Lack of sun exposure

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Access to recreational facilities/work environment

SOCIAL
Food security/Socioeconomic status





INJURY PREVENTION & CONTROL COSTS

DIRECT:
E.g. Hospital/rehabilitation costs (I and C), medication (I and C), Medicare (C) PBS (C), TAC (C), Health promotion programs (C), ambulance (I and C)

INDIRECT:
E.g. Long term care (I and C), Welfare payments (C), Lost Productivity (C)
Injuries an lead to long term care and may require long term government assistance and welfare.

INTANGIBLE:
E.g. Individual pain and suffering (I), family grief (C), anxiety about adjusting to changed lifestyle (I)
Severe impact of pain and suffering due to injuries being unforseen. Person who are permanently disabled may experience frustration
INJURY PREVENTION AND CONTROL: REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION
Responsible for about
7% of BOD in 2010

Almost
6.2% of all deaths
in Australia 2010 were injury related

Main cause of death for people under 45

All injuries are considered to be preventable

Injuries incur significant direct, indirect & intangible costs

INJURY PREVENTION AND CONTROL: OVERVIEW

“The adverse affects on the human body that may result from a range of different events.”

May be accidental (falls, poisoning, drowning, car crashes) or intentional (suicide, attempted suicide, violence)

Significant cause of preventable illness, disability, and premature death.
INJURY PREVENTION AND CONTROL DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL
Body shape/Sex/Age

BEHAVIOURAL
Drug use/Alcohol use/Physical activity/Risk taking behaviour

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Work environment/Housing/Access to recreaation facilities

SOCIAL
Work/Housing/Transport

BE ABLE TO ELABORATE HOW 1 DETERMINANT FROM EACH CATEGORY COULD CONTRIBUTE OR REDUCE THE RISK OF THE CONDITION
CHOOSE 1 PROGRAM AND BE ABLE TO BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM AND HOW IT IS ADVERTISING ITS MESSAGE.
CANCER CONTROL COSTS

DIRECT:
Chemotherapy/Radiotherapy/Surgery treatment (I & C), health promotion campaigns (C), Medicare (C), PBS (C)


INDIRECT:
Altering living conditions (I), Paying for services – cleaning/mowing lawns (I), social security payments (C), Loss of income (I & C)


INTANGIBLE:
Pain and suffering associated with cancer (I), family stress and anxiety (C), anxiety and stress (I and C)
CANCER CONTROL: REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION

Largest contributor to Australian BOD

Major health impact on the Australian community due to high morbidity, mortality and health care costs.

Screening and early detection can improve the management of and in some cases recovery

There has been improvements in early detection, treatment and survival, however overall incidence is still high
CANCER
“Disease in which cells multiply uncontrollably and damage tissues all throughout the body.”

Different cancers grow and spread in different ways and at different rates to form tumours.

There are exceptions such as leukemia (cancer of the blood and bone marrow).

CANCER CONTROL: OVERVIEW
CANCER CONTROL KEY FEATURES
Breast, Cervical, Colo-rectal, Lung, Melanoma, Non-melanoma, Non Hodgkin's lymphoma, Prostate cance
r

Eight cancers have been identified as priority cancers. Write a brief overview of each of the 8 cancers.
CANCER CONTROL DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL
Obesity, Sex, Age, Genetic predisposition

BEHAVIOURAL
Drug use, Alcohol use, Diet, Exposure to sun

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Work/Air quality/Climate/Environmental tobacco smoke

SOCIAL
Food security, SES, Stress, Access to healthcare

BE ABLE TO ELABORATE HOW 1 DETERMINANT FROM EACH CATEGORY COULD CONTRIBUTE TO THE CONDITION
CANCER CONTROL CAMPAIGNS
NO TAN IS WORTH DYING FOR
INJURY PREVENTION & CONTROL CAMPAIGNS

National Health Priority Areas
Cardiovascular Health ----->
Hypertension ----- Coronary Heart Disease ----- Stroke ----- Peripheral vascular disease ----- Atherosclerosis ----- Cholesterol

Obesity ----->
Body Mass Index (BMI) ----- Waist Measurement
Mental Health
----->
Anxiety ----- Depression

Asthma ----->

Diabetes Mellitus ----->
Glucose ----- Insulin ----- Type 1 ----- Type 2 ----- Gestational

KEY WORDS
KEY WORDS
PROGRAM FOCUS: HEADSPACE
National youth mental health foundation that offers support, information, advice to young people aged 12-25.

Headspace offer young people, parents and carers counseling, health education, alcohol and drug services via their website and brochures etc.

NEED TO BE ABLE TO ELABORATE ABOUT ANY OF THE ABOVE DETERMINANTS AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY MAY CAUSE AN INCREASED OR /DECREASED RISK OF A CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITION
NEED TO BE ABLE TO ELABORATE ABOUT ANY OF THE ABOVE DETERMINANTS AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY MAY CAUSE AN INCREASED OR /DECREASED RISK OF A MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITION
Full transcript