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10.3 Regulating the Cell Cycle
Transcript of 10.3 Regulating the Cell Cycle
External regulators are proteins that respond to events outside the cell. They direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle.
Growth factors are external regulators that stimulate the growth and division of cells. They are important during embryonic development and wound healing. Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death. Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells. As a result, the cells divide uncontrollably. Cancer is a disorder in which body cells lose the ability to control cell growth.
Cancer cells divide uncontrollably to form a mass of cells called a tumor. A benign tumor is noncancerous. It does not spread to surrounding healthy tissue.
A malignant tumor is cancerous. It invades and destroys surrounding healthy tissue and can spread to other parts of the body.
The spread of cancer cells is called metastasis. Cancer cells absorb nutrients needed by other cells, block nerve connections, and prevent organs from functioning. A damaged or defective p53 gene is common in cancer cells. It causes cells to lose the information needed to respond to growth signals. Cancers are caused by defects in genes that regulate cell growth and division. Some sources of gene defects are smoking tobacco, radiation exposure, defective genes, and viral infection. Some localized tumors can be removed by surgery.
Many tumors can be treated with targeted radiation.
Chemotherapy is the use of compounds that kill or slow the growth of cancer cells. Treatment