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Transcript of Organic Molecules
Sugars and Starches
Many monosaccharides put together
1 unit of sugar
These are simple sugars
These are complex carbs
Polysaccharides in Animals and Plants
HDL: Cholesterol that gets carried to your liver to be broken down
* Monounsaturated fats are GOOD for you! They lower LDL cholesterol.
Not important for nutrition
Partially hydrogenated oil
Force hydrogen atoms onto any available Carbons
Proteins have the same structure except where the amino acids attach to the carbon chain... SEE!
There are 20 Amino Acids
Nine Essential Amino Acids
Beans and other legumes
How do vegetarians get the other 9 amino acids if they don't eat meat?
* Amino Acids are joined by a PEPTIDE BOND
* The polymers of amino acids are polypeptides... (seeing a pattern?)
Your body can make 11 all by itself. The other 9 can ALL be found in meat
10's of thousands of arrangements of amino acids
-The order and number determines the structure/function
1)Fats & Oils
*Fats are for long term energy storage
DNA and RNA
Parts and pieces:
* Phosphate group
* Nitrogen base
* Pentose sugar (either ribose of deoxyribose)
DNA is double stranded
Sugars are attached to the phosphates to make a backbone.
The nitrogenous bases dangle from the backbone
The nitrogenous bases from one strand attaches to the other
The sugar-phosphate backbone are joined by a covalent bond
The nitrogen bases are joined by a hydrogen bond
If the DNA were to "break", where would it likely do so?
*There are single bonds between the carbons.
* This makes the molecule straight.
* They are
at room temperature.
(And gummy in your arteries)
* There are double bonds between the carbon chain
* Makes the structure bent so they are
at room temperature
LDL: Cholesterol that gets carried to your arteries! Eww
Insert face here!
What is the function of protein??
Carbohydrate monomers & polymers
The polymers of carbohydrates are called...
When carbohydrates are broken down they provide energy for the cell
What are the monomers of the 4 macromolecules we learned about today?
A single unit or molecule that can be linked with other monomers
Many monomers linked together makes a polymer
Which is better for you, simple sugars or complex carbs? Explain your answer with the data
Which organelle is responsible for producing cellulose?
Explain your answer
1. look at the molecular structures. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
2. Which one stacks up and is solid at room temp?
3. Which one doesn't stack up as easily and is liquid at room temp?
Explain why you need to eat corn and beans to get all essential amino acids.
Explain the data. What does this show?
Organic Molecules all contain _______________
Which of the following is an organic molecule... HOW DO YOU KNOW???
C H O
6 12 6
Found in these foods..
Examples: Glucose & Fructose
means= 2 sweet
it is...2 units of sugar
means= many sweet
it is... many units of sugar
Starch & fiber
**These are complex carbohydrates!
In carbohydrates the C, H and O are in a 1 to 2 to 1 ratio
The 4 Organic Molecules are
What is the function of carbohydrates for our bodies??
Found in these foods...
* animal fats (lard)
* Include a glycerol &
3 fatty acids
lots of those together
What is the function of lipids?
* Fats make up our cell membranes
Draw on smart board
Found in these foods....
Proteins pretty much do everything!
* Regulation of
* Regulation of
* Body functions -vision, movement, digestion
Each monomer (_____ ____) is linked together by a special bond called a peptide bond.
* That's why proteins are also called ____________
what are these?
What are those?
what do you call this whole thing highlighted in blue?
What is the function of nucleic acids??
* Store genetic information!
What is an enzyme?
What 3 thing does it do?
What 2 things can denature enzymes?
speeds up chemical reactions
builds things up
breaks things down
Temperature & pH
Special note- enzymes are not used up after use.
They can be used over and over again. Like a key.
Function of Carbs