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The American Revolution
Transcript of The American Revolution
by: India Schilling P.7 History
AN INTERACTIVE TIMELINE
Between 1607 and the mid 1700s Britain established Thirteen Colonies in the east coast of North America, these thirteen colonies were Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, North Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, and Rhode Island.
French and Indian War (1754-1763)
The Proclamation Line (1763)
The French and Indian War was a war between the British and the French, it began in 1754 and ended in 1763, it happened because the British wanted to expand the land that they had in North America, so they declared a war on France to take the land that they owned in America. The French had the Native American Indians on their side, because they had already made peace with them. The British won in 1763, but in order to keep peace with the Native Americans, they made a Proclamation Line, saying that the colonists could not cross the line. The colonists did not appreciate this, because they were being taxed to pay for the war, that won them land, that they weren't allowed to go in
Sugar Act 1763
Stamp Act 1764
The sugar and stamp acts were taxes that the British made the colonists pay for to pay for the French and Indian War, and other things. They made the colonists pay extra money on sugar and stamps.
1763 + 1764
Boston Massacre (1770)
The Boston Massacre was a street fight that occurred on March 5, 1770, a group of drunk patriots, were throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks, at a squad of British soldiers. The British were given permission to do practically whatever they wanted with the colonists, so the British soldiers started shooting at the colonists carelessly. 7 colonists died.
Tea Act (1773)
The Tea Act, was in 1773 when the British were taxing severely on tea. The Patriots would often not buy tea, to protest.
Boston Tea Party (1773)
The Boston Tea Party was a rebellious act done by Patriots. Multiple Patriots dressed as Native Americans went to the Boston Harbor and dumped a cargo load of tea crates into the Harbor. This caused the closing of the Boston Harbor.
Intolerable Acts (1773)
The Intolerable Acts were the acts that punished the colonists for the Boston Tea Party and the other Protests. They closed Boston Harbor, made colonists quarter soldiers, limited town meetings, and allowed the governor to move trials of accused royal officers to another colony or Great Britain.
First Continental Congress (1774)
The first Continental Congress met in Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia, from September 5, to October 26, 1774. The colonists were growing more and more irritated with Britain's Government. After the French and Indian War and the Proclamation Line, the colonists were rebelling more and more against Britain. Britain's Government began to send more soldiers to North America to force the colonists to obey. The representatives of state had to decide what to do about the British Government. Their choices were to:
-Declare Independence from the British Empire and start a war
- Write a letter King George iii begging his government to change
-Give in to Britain's demand and tell the colonists to stop rebelling
They decided to write a letter to King George iii, but he ignored it and told the Parliament to tax the colonists and do whatever they wanted.
The Battles of Lexington and
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy, and Cambridge, near Boston.
Thirteen Colonies- the Thirteen Colonies were british colonies on the atlantic coast of North America founded between 1607-1733. The thirteen colonies were Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, North Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, and Rhode Island.
French and Indian War- a war in North America between France and Britain ( both aided by American Indian Tribes) 1755-1760
Sugar Act- The Sugar Act, also known as the American Revenue, or the American Duties Act, was a revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on April 5, 1764.
Stamp Act- an act of the British Parliament in 1756 that exacted revenue from the American colonies by imposing a stamp duty on newspapers and legal and commercial documents. Colonial opposition led to the act's repeal in 1766 and helped encourage the revolutionary movement against the British Crown.
“No Taxation without Representation”- "No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1750s and 1760s that summarized a primary grievance of the British colonists hardy in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
King George III- George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his
British Parliament- the British legislative body
Boston Massacre-The Boston Massacre, known as the Incident on King Street by the British, was an incident on March 5, 1770, in which British Army soldiers killed five civilian men and injured six others.
Tea Act- The Tea Act was act of the British Parliament of Great Britain. Its principal objective was to reduce the massive surplus of tea held by the financially troubled British East India Company in is London warehouse and to help the struggling company survive.
Boston Tea Party- demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor; organized as a protest against taxes on tea. This caused the closing of the Boston Harbour.
Intolerable Acts- The Intolerable Acts was the Patriot name for a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 relating to Massachusetts after the Boston Tea party
First Continental Congress- The First Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from twelve colonies that met on September 5, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution. It was called in response to the passage of the Coercive Acts by the British Parliament
Second Continental Congress-The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the thirteen colonies that started meeting in the summer of 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun
John Adams- John Adams was the second president of the United States, having earlier served as the first vice president of the United States. (1735-1826) Married to Abigail Adams.
Declaration of Independence- the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the Colonies from Great Britain. Written by Thomas Jefferson.
Rebellion Against Britain
War of Independence
Battles of Lexington and Concord- The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775, in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy, and Cambridge, near Boston
Patriots-Patriots (also known as Rebels, Revolutionaries, Congress-Men or American Whigs) were those colonists of the British Thirteen United Colonies that violently rebelled against British control during the American Revolution and in July 1776 declared the United States of America an independent nation. Their rebellion was based on the political philosophy of republicanism, as expressed by pamphleteers, such as Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Paine.
Loyalists-American Colonists who remained loyal to the kingdom of Great Britain (and the British Monarchy) during the American Revolutionary War.
Thomas Jefferson-Thomas Jefferson was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States. He was a spokesman for democracy and the rights of man with worldwide influence. Married to Martha Jefferson.
War of Independence-The war began as a war between the kingdom of Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, but gradually grew into a world war between Great Britain on one side, and the newly formed United States. (1775-1783)
George Washington- George Washington was the first President of the United States, the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United. Married to Martha Washington.
British Evacuation of Boston, MA- The British Occupied Boston and the British Navy was surrounding it and preventing anything from coming in our out of the harbour, Washington Ordered a group of his soldiers to try to steal cannons from Britain’s Fort Ticonderoga, 300 miles away, drag them back to Boston, and put them on another hill with range of the city and the harbour called Dorchester Heights, Washington won, and the British evacuated without firing a single cannon.
Battles of Trenton and Princeton, NY- the first successes won by the Revolutionary general George Washington in the open field. The Battle of Trenton took place on December 26, 1776 after George Washington crossed the Delaware River. The Hazardous crossing in adverse weather made it impossible for Washington to lead the main body of the Continental Army against the Hessian Soldiers garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle, nearly the entire Hessian force was captured, with neglible losses to the Americans. The battle significantly boosted the Continental Army’s flagging morale, and inspired reenlistments.
Battle of Saratoga- When the British Army was moving towards Philadelphia to capture the acting capitol of the colonies, where the Continental Congress was meeting. Another British force was moving south, with a goal of splitting the colonies in two. Washington had to decide on New York or Pennsylvania, he decided to order the militiamen on the frontier to attack the British force moving south with Native American “guerilla” warfare tactics, in an effort to slow them down as they move through the forests of upper New York. The Americans won.
French Army and Navy- the French People who helped the colonies and fought with them in the War of Independence.
Dutch Loans-The Dutch Loans were what John Adams and Thomas Jefferson convinced the Dutch to do, they paid for uniforms and other things that the Americans needed for the war.
French Navy Saved-
Valley Forge, PA- A village of southeast Pennsylvania on the Schuylkill River northwest of Philadelphia. It was the site of the headquarters of the Continental Army under George Washington from December 1777 to June 1778 during the American Revolution. The encampment was subjected to severe winter weather that caused extensive illness and suffering.
Battle of Yorktown, VA- The Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Yorktown, or Surrender at Yorktown, the latter taking place on October 19, 1781, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops
Treaty of Paris-The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on December 4, 1259 ending 100 years of conflicts
Creating the Constitution
Articles of Confederation-the original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781, which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789.
Shays’ Rebellion- Shays' Rebellion was an armed uprising that took place in central and western Massachusetts in 1786 and 1787. The rebellion was named after Daniel Shays, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and one of the rebel leaders. The rebellion started on August 29, 1786.
Constitutional Convention- the convention of United States statesmen who drafted the United States Constitution in 1787
James Madison- 4th President of the United States; member of the Continental Congress and rapporteur at the Constitutional Convention in 1776; helped frame the Bill of Rights (1751-1836)
United States Constitution- the constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and subsequently ratified by the original thirteen states
Legislative Branch- the branch of the United States government that has the power of legislating. Enacts laws.
Executive Branch- the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws
Judicial Branch- the branch of the United States government responsible for the administration of justice. Evaluates laws.
Checks and Balances- counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups.
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists- Federalists are members or supporters of the Federalist Party. Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the Constitution of 1787. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation, gave state governments more authority.
Constitution Ratified- "Ratification of a constitution" means formal acceptance by a political society, or community, of a proposed constitution that has been drafted and submitted to the society for its decision on acceptance or rejection.The proposed constitution is formally adopted by the society and goes into effect as that society's supreme law.
Three Fifths Compromise- The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
Great Compromise- The Connecticut Compromise was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.
United States BIll of Rights- The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
Second Continental Congress (1775)
On May 10, 1775 to decide what to do about the war. They needed to decide if they should create a Continental Army, for defense, and who should lead it. Their options were:
-Don't create a Continental Army, because that would mean that they were prepared to go into a war, which they had no wanted, and just continue to fight with only militiamen.
-Create a large Continental Army and a leader
-Give in to Britain's demands and tell all the militiamen to surrender
They chose to create a large Continental Army and chose George Washington to lead.
War of Independence (1775-1781)
The War of Independence was a revolutionary war, of the Americans against the British, the Americans wanted to be free and declare independence. The war had many battles. The battles were:
-Boston, Massachusetts (1775-1776)
-New York, New York (1776)
-Trenton, New Jersey (1776)
-Saratoga, New York + Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1777)
-Valley Forge, Pennsylvania (1777-1778)
-The French Navy (1781)
-Yorktown Virginia (1781)
British Evacuation of Boston, MA
The British Evacuation of Boston was from June 1775 to March 1776. The British were in Boston, and preventing anything from coming in or out of the Boston Harbor. Washington Ordered a group of his soldiers to try to steal cannons from Britain’s Fort Ticonderoga, 300 miles away, drag them back to Boston, and put them on another hill with range of the city and the harbor called Dorchester Heights, Washington won, and the British evacuated without firing a single cannon.
Battles of Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey (1776)
The Battles of Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey were the first successes won by the revolutionary general George Washington. The Battle of Trenton took place on December 26, 1776 after George Washington crossed the Delaware River. The Hazardous crossing in adverse weather made it impossible for Washington to lead the main body of the Continental Army against the Hessian Soldiers garrisoned at Trenton. After a small battle, nearly the entire Hessian force was captured, with losses to the Americans.
Battle of Saratoga, NY (1777)
The Battle of Saratoga was when the British Army was moving towards Philadelphia to capture the acting capitol of the colonies, where the Continental Congress was meeting. Another British force was moving south, with a goal of splitting the colonies in two. Washington had to decide on New York or Pennsylvania, he decided to order the militiamen on the frontier to attack the British force moving south with Native American “guerilla” warfare tactics, in an effort to slow them down as they move through the forests of upper New York. The Americans won.
Declaration of Independence (1776)
The Declaration of Independence was the declaration of the colonists freedom. Written by Thomas Jefferson. It was voted and approved on July 2nd, 1776 an made public July 4th, 1776.
Valley Forge, PA (1777-1778)
Valley Forge is a village of southeast Pennsylvania on the Schuylkill River northwest of Philadelphia. It was the site of the headquarters of the Continental Army under George Washington from December 1777 to June 1778 during the American Revolution. The encampment was subjected to severe winter weather that caused extensive illness and suffering. The soldiers built log cabins for the winter and to train hard for the new battles in the spring. When George Washington and his army army were in Valley Forge, a German general named Baron von Steuben trained Washington's army, so that they would be prepared to fight the British head on.
French Army and Navy (1781)
Battle of Yorktown, VA (1781)
Articles of Confederation (1781)
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Shays' Rebellion (1786-1787)
Constitutional Convention 1787
Three Fifths Compromise 1787
Great Compromise 1787
Washington's Election (1789)
The French Navy were spotted off the coast of Rhode Island preparing to send gunboats and help the Americans, George Washington decided to order his soldiers toward the British and act as if they were planning an attack, so that they might leave without going after the French and outnumbering them.
The first constitution that the colonies worked together from 1777- 1789. It was a weak government system because 9 out of 13 states would have to agree in order to make a law.
The British Army took over Yorktown, VA, and the French Army ad Navy and the Continental Army are in range to attack. Washington decided to order his soldiers to confront the British soldiers head on with help from the French Army and Navy. This was the final war in the American Revolution and the Americans won with help from the French Army and Navy, and the Dutch loans for uniforms. In total 25000 Americans died in the total war.
The Treaty of Paris was an acknowledgement from the British that the Americans had won independence. It was signed on September 2, 1783
An angry war veteran named Daniel Shays led an armed rebellion in Massachusetts that convinced many people that a stronger constitution was needed.
The meeting in 1787 where they decided to improve the Articles of Confederation. That is where they wrote the new constitution.
The Great Compromise was to base representation in the legislature on both ideas with two houses, one on each side.
Washington's Presidency was dominated on the need to succeed. He served two terms (1797-1801) He was the first president of the United States of America, by his presidency they had a complete system with the Legislative, Executive and Judicial Branches. During Washington's presidency there was The Whiskey Rebellion and Revolutionary Frances War.
The Three Fifths Compromise was to ban slavery, but it could not happen, so there was a compromise that every five slaves counts as 3 people.