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1950's and 1960's Decade Project

Exploring 8 broad categories to compare these decades in US history.

Samantha Poratti

on 28 April 2013

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Transcript of 1950's and 1960's Decade Project

1950's and 1960's Decade Project Comparative Fashion John F. Kennedy/LBJ + Nixon/ Ford Comparative Music Popular Entertainment Comparative Literature and Poetry Comparative Technology Social Political Causes Economic Trends and Patterns The 50's The 60's Men Women/Girls Boys - A gray flannel suit was typical for work, usually also with a white shirt and a tie - Younger generations of men invented the loafer a little later on - Tight sweaters, poodle skirts, bobby socks, and saddle shoes were very common -Women were fond of emphasizing their figure with tailored bust lines, slender waists, padded hips, and a lot of makeup - Women's style was starting to move away from the influences of popular cities like London and Paris, but instead they were creating their own unique blend of these styles - Blue jeans and a white t-shirt were very popular
( copying the rock and roll style at the time ) Men Women/Girls Boys A modern era was coming around and it touched upon the men's fashion sense - The buzz cut hairstyle was out, and instead men would go to a stylists to keep their hair looking good. Not barbers. - A more "free" look appeared, with more room for expression Example: Bigger and more colorful ties The modern look was brought around by a British designer in 1964, and it became very popular among young women. And along with a new fashion icon Jackie O. Kennedy, it created a simple yet attractive look for women everywhere. - Miniskirts, colorful dresses, dark eye makeup, crazy blouses, stockings, and accessories were popular - In American women's minds the "attractive" shape to be was thin Due to a new British model named Twiggy - This new modern look was commonly seen during the Women's Rights Movements - Still jeans and a white t-shirt were favorites 50's 60's John F. Kennedy - > Democratic Senator from Massachusetts

> LBJ was also a Senate majority leader from Texas Nixon - > Was a Republican Senator from California - gained his status due to his campaign tactics of persistently trying to get rid of communism in our government
- He even exposed a government official in the state department of being a communist spy = People started to favor him > He appeared a lot on TV leading to a lot of success but also failure > As Vice President he was known for skewering Democrats and other politicians to gain popularity JFK/LBJ vs. Nixon > The Democratic race began as a free for all, but JFK won impressive victories letting him gain a lot of popularity and success - JFK ended up beating LBJ for the Democratic spot and in his acceptance speech he called upon the American people to start achieving the greatness that he know this nation has > Nixon won the Republican nomination spot - The "new" Nixon was seen as more mature and experienced

- He had gained more attention from his "kitchen debate" with Khrushchev in Moscow, Russia in 1959 The Debates Among Nixon and Kennedy - - Since Kennedy was Roman Catholic, many people used this point against him

- Kennedy believed that the Soviets had an edge over the Americans and that this needed to be changed > Nixon did not agree instead saying that the nation was fine and only Kennedy was going to cause it to slip with his unpatriotic talk - There were 4 debates on TV where Kennedy was seen holding his own( The candidates image on TV was very important ) - Kennedy ended up winning the election and giving a "New Frontier" speech at his inauguration > He inspired high expectation among the American people, espessially the younger generations ( TAP 38, pg 909 ) > Created the Peace Corps during the Cold War period, and many other programs 50's 60's Movies > TV sets were more easily available to families, so not very many people actually were going to the theaters. So directors had to come up with unique and different tactics to get people out and to go to see a movie Popular titles: The Day the Earth Stood Still, Godzilla * 3-D movies were beginning to make an appearance Food > New fast food restaurants were being created - Like Burger King and McDonalds > Restaurants were taking on the new concepts of standardization and franchising, which had never been done on a large scale before > TV dinners were becoming very popular ( directly relates to new technology like TV's ) Popular: Burgers and french fries Sports and Games Popular: Etch A Sketch, LEGOS, Skate Boarding, sports magazines, etc. > Americans were becoming more interested in sports( Baseball was the most popular sport in U.S. at the time )

> Sports were being broadcast in homes for the first time ever

> Pro Football was becoming more popular thanks to TV time, and college basketball was a favorite during the winter

> Integrations was a common theme seen among sports teams, even though at the time society was not integrated Sports - Sports figures like Jackie Robinson and many others were playing on various sports teams Games - > There were many new games like LEGOS for kids to build whatever they imagined, Etch A Sketch to create anything kids wanted, and skateboards and other toys for older kids to enjoy

> The teenager age was becoming involved with physical fitness, as this became really popular during this time TV Shows > This became America's favorite source of entertainment after World War II > The Radio and movies started to decline Popular Shows: I Love Lucy, Mickey Mouse Club, Alvin and the Chipmunks, Davy Crocket, the Ed Sullivan Show, game shows, etc. * A popular TV show called, Ozzie and Harriet, was a show about a regular family named the Nelsons. It gave lessons on parenting and dealing with adolescence during the 50's ( TAP 37, pg. 884 ) Movies > Movie making was in a slump at the beginning of this decade
- TV was rising in popularity so it was hard for producers to fight back against it Strategies - Make big productions that TV cannot make or produce

- Create movies with more mature subjects so that it could not be put on TV
( along with this new theme of movies, a new rating system was created ) Popular titles - Hair, Mary Poppins, James Bond movies, Horror movies, Planet of the Apes, Beach movies, space rider, etc. Food > Budweiser became the biggest selling beer company ever( thanks to advertising )

Popular Food: burgers, french fries, canned soda, cereal, coffee mate, pop tarts, spagetti O's, Gatorade, Cambell's Soup, etc. Sports and Games Popular: Dallas Cowboys, Super Bowl, Twister, Frisbee, Muhammed Ali, etc. > Professional sports became very popular ( baseball, football, hockey, and basketball )

> Olympics gained popularity

> New sports channels were created on TV TV Shows > TV was still taking off and gaining in popularity Popular Shows: Hawaii Five-O, Gilligans Islands, Bewitched, Johnny Carson, 60 Minutes, Mister Roger's Neighborhood, Flipper, Star Trek, etc. 50's 60's > Energy in American writing was increasing Popular Books:
- Catcher in the Rye ( book of the decade)
- Frosty the Snowman
- Dr. Seuss
- Peanuts Comic Strip > Famous authors like Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Dr. Seuss

> Many books were aimed at the younger generation and it influenced them a lot

> Other book were critical of mainstream society

> American magazine publishing changed with the modern times - There were magazines like Sports Illustrated, National Enquirer, MAD magazine, Playboy, etc. > Literature really thrived during the 60's, with a culture that valued thinking

> There were many serious novels that touched on deeper topics, but there were also lighter novels - These lighter novels were commonly made into popular films( like the James Bond book series ) > Science fiction was rising in popularity

> Magazine companies were again changing with the time, when more and more Americans were paying attention to TV for current news, etc. Best Novel of the Decade: To Kill a Mockingbird 50's 60's > Post World War II, manufacturing displayed the fastest and easiest ways to get products out to consumers Women made up a majority of the workers
( TAP 37, pg. 885 ) > The TV was the biggest invention of the time, due to how it changed everyone's life - Politics were now more focused on how they looked to their audience, people's diets were based on watching TV( advertising or just TV dinners ), entertainment was based upon the TV ( shows and movies ), books were later put into a media type, sports were watched on TV, etc. The List can go on and on > Other advances in science and technology include the credit card ( directly related to the economy ), effective birth control, etc. > NASA was formed in 1958 Created the technology that got us on the moon first > Satellites

> Able to beam radio messages to the stars

> The oceans were being discovered in more depth using dolphins and seafloor spreading

> Scientists used technology to learn about global warming or the greenhouse effect

> Computers were starting to advance more and it was on its way to becoming more accessable for everyone 50's 60's > Americans were very scared of Communism during this time, and thought that their way of living could be taken away very easily

- They thought this because of the foreign countries like the Soviets who annexed most of Eastern Europe and China too > One of the bigger involvements for the US during this time, was getting in the middle of the Korean border conflict and deciding to send troops over to fight back against these communist aggressors. US regarded North Korea as a valuable region to be in contact with, and the Soviets thought the same thing. A lot of the 50's was spent fighting against these communist countries. But we were also fighting communism on our home front. > McCarthyism This idea sprung up when a man named Joseph McCarthy announced that a lot of the state department was actually communist. This shook a lot of people, and made them not trust the government as much. It created a time of uncertainty about our government and the people in it. > Many people voiced their opinions with their votes, and many voted like never before - This shows that a new era was beginning in our government that appealed to the middle class the most > This era was also the time of new political image making > The Civil Rights struggle was very apparent ( Kennedy had been trying to get rid of discrimination for a long time )

> Kennedy brought about a new decade of activism among the people

> Violence and Assassinations - JFK ( 1963 ), Martin Luther King ( 1968 ), and Senator RFK ( dying a few months after his brother ), caused a lot of concern about the status of the country at that time and about the character of the U.S. - LBJ, presiding after JFK, proposed the Great Society ( but it stalled right after it began ) > The U.S. was getting more and more involved in the Vietnam War > Many people in the U.S. figured that there would be a war between the Soviets and Americans, and involving nuclear weapons - This ideology came up in 1962 with the Cuban Missile Crisis This created a realization among both countries that there needed to be improved relations - And with these improved relation over a little while, the fright of a war occurring between these two countries was not as strong - LBJ was sending troops into North Vietnam for three years

- And people were questioning if this war was really neccissary and what the actual purpose of it was Due to the mixed feelings about the US involvement in Vietnam, Nixon was able to use this as an edge to his campaign, which later granted him presidency in 1969. Nixon urged people to stop shouting at each other over this war and introduced vietnamization. He was overall trying to reduce the amount of troops in Vietnam.

TAP 39, pg. 940 50's 60's > Business was booming during this time > And the U.S. had the largest economy in the world at the time

> The Consumer in the U.S. was the biggest force
- Americans bought a lot of goods that gave them a better way of living compared to many other countries Consumer Culture created this era:
( Cars, fridges, watches, Barbies, etc. )

- The mall was created
- The credit card was created in 1950 > The 60's marked the longest time the market had had a period of uninterrupted expansion

> A lot of big corporations like General Motors, IBM, Coca Cola, etc, extended influence and products to every part of the globe Big businesses dominated the U.S. economy > Americans were living really well = by the end of the decade the real income had increased 50% since 1950 - Companies were getting involved with advertising to expand their company > Retailers were changing to fit consumers needs ( Ex: Walmart and K-Mart ) > When Kennedy took office, the U.S. was in its fourth recession since the end of World War II

- By the mid 1960's, U.S. economy was the strongest it had been since 1945 50's 60's Popular: Electric Guitar, Disc Jockeys, Elvis Presley, Rock and Roll > The birth of Rock and Roll - elements of rythmn and jazz are added together, creating a new sound that is truly American > Rock and roll is a social and musical force which is very integrated. There were different races in the same band. While American society was still very segregated. > Rock and roll music was made popular by a new kind of programmer called a Disc Jockey Popular: Beach Boys, Bob Dylan, Rolling Stones, Motown, Folk Music, Grateful Dead, etc. > There were many different types of popular music that attracted a lot of different fans

> Folk music was also very popular, because the artists used this type of music to express their opinions about politics, etc. - At the end of World War II, the U.S. was the single most important and powerful nation in the world, and the nation knew it too. U.S. was very strong militarily and economically.

- The U.S. was also known to be a leader of the free world, due to the alliances with the Soviets and the People's republic of China. Coming out of the 1940's - The 1950's to the 1960's -
- The 1950's were a time of experimenting and just living life normally and not really expanding exponentially. It isn't until John F. Kennedy came as president to really challenge the people to go to their limits and live the American way. To represent the nation and make it stronger in any way possible.

- Companies, businesses, and individuals took this idea and expanded it. Leading to all the innovation and inventions seen in the 1960's. The End
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