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A History of Egyptian Cinema
Transcript of A History of Egyptian Cinema
A History of Egyptian Cinema
Eshraka & Mariam
An Egyptian Legacy
Of more than 4000 short and feature-length films made in Arabic-speaking countries since 1908, more than three quarters were Egyptian.
First films to be shown in Egypt were the Lumiere Brothers' short films - shown in Alexandria on the 5th of November, 1896, less than 1 year after the Paris premiere.
28th of November, 1896: Cairo held its first cinematographic projection at the Schnider Swimming pool.
Initially Egyptian Cinema was dominated by foreigners. Lumiere Brothers monopolized the industry until 1906 when French and Italian companies acquired franchises in Egypt and joined the market.
The arrival of sound - Egyptianized the cinema, attracted local audiences and locals to work in the industry.
1923- Muhammad Bayumi founded Studio Amon Films
1936- Bayumi collaborated with Talaat Harb to create Studio Misr (was considered the Egyptian Equivalent to Hollywood).
1920's - 1930's
Movie theaters divided into three classes that reflected the pyramidal structure of the Egyptian society at the time: First class, second class and third class - also known in colloquial terms as "cinema terso".
Farid Shawky as "the king of terso".
Melodrama and bedouin love - dominating themes.
Qubla fel Sahara -by Ibrahim Lama, 1927-first feature length film produced in Egypt
Leila -by Wedad Orfi, 1927
Zeinab - by Mohamed Karim, 1930 - a peasant's melodrama. First Egyptian film to be adapted from an Egyptian novel of the same title - written by Mohammed Hussein Heikal.
Unshadat al Fuad - 1931 - the first sound Egyptian movie.
Al Warda al Baida - Mohamed Karim, 1933 - starred the legend of Arab song Abdel Wahab. Was a Blockbuster hit.
Formula for success: dance and music.
Nasser and Cinema
During & after WWII
Censorship 1952 - 1970
Cinema as a production of solidarity and national identity
Nationalization - 1961
Patriotic and anti-colonial feelings triggered films:
Isqat el Istemar - by Hussein Sidqi
Mustafa Kamel - by Ahmed Badrakhan
Fe Beitina Ragul - by Henri Barakat, starring Omar Sherif
Rodda Qalbi - 1957, commemoration of Egypt's National Day.
A series of comedy films starring the famous top comedian of the 50s, Ismail Yassin.
The Golden Era of Egyptian Cinema
1940s - 1960s
1961 nationalization's impact
El Haram, Shay Men El Khauf, El Nasser Salah Eldin.
A twist of events: mismanagement & corruption
1970s - denationalization - a more profit driven and commercial period had arrived that would put an end to the Golden era of Egyptian Cinema
Problems facing the Egyptian film industry today:
monoplies - Al Nasr-Oscar-Al Masah - responsible for 46% of the Egyptian market revenue in 2005
Industry profit and production volume levels after 1970 tremendously decreased.
Number of cinema venues decreased from 244 in 1944, and 360 in 1954, to 62 in 1992.
Funding From Abu Dhabi
"Sanad" was established in 2010.
Post-production grants are up to Dh220,000 and development grants are up to Dh73,000.
The musical dominated the Egyptian film industry in the 1940s and brought with it a generation of famous singer stars:
Farid El Atrash
Egyptian movies that strive to break the mold and attempt to revitalize the film industry in Egypt:
El Farah & El Leila El Kebira - both directed by Sameh Abdelaziz.
El Leila El Kebira
“Villa 69” (2013)
1.8 Million Dh
Collab with UAE
Egyptian Short Films
The Luxor Egyptian and European Film Festival
In Jan 2014 Sara Rozik won an award for her short film “The Other Pair”
Madrid International Film Festival:
Festival Award for Best Producer of a short Film
Tenerife International Film Festival,:
Best Foreign Language Short Film
Best Lead Actor
Best Supporting Actor
Directed by Mohamed Karim
Produced by Ahmed Youssef
http://arabicshortfilms.blogspot.com.eg/search/label/Country%3A Egypt - uds-search-results
Website for Arab Short Films
First long Arabic feature film in Egypt (1923).
Financed by Egyptian money
Named after a woman, Leila (1927), and was produced by a woman, the actress Aziza Amir.
First Egyptian Film Funding
"I have toiled at studying cinema, sacrificed my wealth and peace of mind for its sake and fought many battles to preserve it ... My motive has never been materialistic. Cinema, for me, has been a message for which I have endured a great deal of pain."
Which Country Was Responsible for funding the first full length Egyptian Movie?
Co-Production treaties with other countries
Co-Production treaty with France
Production of any length films
"Adieu Bonaparte" (1985)
Co-production treaty with Morocco
Production of feature films
10 Fiction films & 8 Documentaries