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AP Comparative Architecture

Period 2
by

Alyssa Mendes

on 3 June 2013

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Transcript of AP Comparative Architecture

Architecture in the AP Comparative Countries The United Kingdom Russia China Mexico Iran Nigeria Castle Stalker Nantclwyd House Roman Baths Nantclwyd House in Denbighshire
The oldest known town house in Wales.
It is an example of Tudor architecture. Castle Stalker is one of Scotland's
most iconic buildings, and amongst
the best-preserved examples of
medieval tower houses in Britain. The Roman Baths complex in
Bath, Somerset, is a
well-preserved Roman site. Castle Howard Castle Howard in North Yorkshire, an example of an English country house. It was built in between 1699 and 1712 Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster in London, houses the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was burned down in 1834 then rebuilt in the years between 1840 and 1870.
It is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Belfast City Hall Finished in 1906, Belfast City Hall in Northern Ireland is a municipal building in the Edwardian Baroque style. Kievan Russia Early Muscovite Middle Muscovite Late Muscovite Imperial Russia Post Revolution Post-war Soviet Union Modern Russia This is 30 St Mary Axe, with St Andrew
Undershaft church in the foreground in
London. It was finished in 2001. 30 St Mary Axe During the mid-20th century, Britain saw the construction of hundreds of tower blocks—particularly in largest cities—to replace Victorian era slums. This image shows Red Road in Glasgow. Red Road The medieval state of Kievan Russia incorporated parts of what is now modern Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus, and was centered around Kiev and Novgorod. Its architectural style quickly established itself after the adoption of Christianity in 988 and was strongly influenced by the Byzantine. The Mongols looted the country so thoroughly that even capitals (such as Moscow or Tver) could not afford new stone churches for more than half a century. Novgorod and Pskov escaped the Mongol yoke, however, and evolved into successful commercial republics; dozens of medieval churches (from the 12th century and after) have been preserved in these towns In the 16th century, the key development was the introduction of the tented roof in brick architecture. Tent-like roof construction is thought to have originated in northern Russia, since it prevented snow from piling up on wooden buildings during long winters. After the Time of Troubles the church and state were bankrupt, unable to finance any construction works; an initiative was taken by rich merchants in Yaroslavl, on the Volga. During the 17th century, they built many large cathedral-type churches with five onion-like cupolas, surrounding them with tents of bell towers and aisles. At first the churches' composition was sharply asymmetrical, with different parts balancing each other on the "scale-beam" principle Petrine Baroque is a name applied by art historians to a style of Baroque architecture and decoration favored by Peter the Great and employed to design buildings in the newly-founded Russian capital, Saint Petersburg, under this monarch and his immediate successors. The Russian Revival style is the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian architecture that arose in second quarter of the 19th century and was an eclectic melding of pre-Peterine Russian architecture and elements of Byzantine architecture. In the first year of Soviet rule all architects refusing to emigrate (and the new generation) denounced any classical heritage in their work and began to propagate formalism, the most influential of all Revivalist themes. Stalinist architecture put a premium on conservative monumentalism. As the Soviet Union fell apart many of its projects were put on hold, and some canceled altogether. However, for the first time there was no longer any control over what theme a building should have or how high it should be. As a result, architecture grew at a high rate. For the first time modern methods of skyscraper construction were implemented. Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (1045—1050) Dormition Cathedral in Vladimir (1186—1189) Church of the Transfiguration on
Ilin Street in Veliky Novgorod (1374) Spasskaya Tower in Moscow Kremlin (1491) Ivan The Great Bell Tower (1505–1508) Iberian Gate and Chapel in Moscow (1535) Terem Palace (1560s/1635-36) Amusement Palace (pink)
in Moscow Kremlin (1652) Znamenskaya Church
(1690–1704) Menshikov tower (1707) Winter Palace (1762–1796) Lenin's mausoleum (1924) Chelyabinsk Opera House Moscow City Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China in part to protect the Chinese Empire or its prototypical states against intrusions by various nomadic groups or military incursions by various warlike peoples or forces. Fortifications of Xi'an (194 BCE) It is one of the oldest and best preserved Chinese city walls. viewed from Jingshan Hill to the north The Meridian Gate, the front entrance The northwest corner tower The Forbidden City The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. It is located in the centre of Beijing, China, and now houses the Palace Museum. Tiananmen Square Tiananmen Square is a large city square in the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen Gate (Gate of Heavenly Peace) located to its North, separating it from the Forbidden City. Tiananmen Square is the third largest city square in the world (440,000 m² - 880m by 500m or 109 acres - 960 by 550 yd). It has great cultural significance as it was the site of several important events in Chinese history. The Classical Gardens of Suzhou Spanning a period of almost one thousand years, from the Northern Song to the late Qing dynasties (11th-19th century), these gardens, most of them built by scholars, standardized many of the key features of classical Chinese garden design with constructed landscapes mimicking natural scenery of rocks, hills and rivers with strategically located pavilions and pagodas. Master of the Nets Garden (1140) It was the tallest building in the world from 2004 to 2010. It is 508 m (1,667 ft) tall. Taipei 101 Monte Albán (~500 BC) Pre-Islamic architecture of Persia (~100 BC) Teotihuacan El Castillo at Chichen Itza. sometime between the 9th through 12th centuries El Castillo served as a temple to the god Kukulkan, the Yucatec Maya Feathered Serpent deity closely related to the god Quetzalcoatl known to the Aztecs and other central Mexican cultures of the Postclassic period. The Cathedral of Yucatán is an example of Renaissance style. Cathedral of Yucatán Pre-Hispanic Colonial Church of Santa Prisca in Taxco (1751-1758) The Metropolitan Cathedral of Mexico City (1656) New Spanish Baroque The combination of Indian and Arabic decorative influences, with an extremely expressive interpretation of the churrigueresque, could explain the variety and intensity of the Baroque in New Spain. The cathedrals of New Spain are good examples of madera style. Neoclassical The Hospicio Cabañas (1791) Industrial Architecture in Yucatán The Hospicio Cabañas in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, a World Heritage Site, is one of the oldest and largest hospital complexes in the Americas. Palacio de Bellas Artes
started in the late 19th century
finished 1934 House of Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo (built by Juan O'Gorman in 1930) Santa Fe business district, Mexico City Naqsh-e Rustam also referred to as Necropolis Falak-ol-Aflak Castle This gigantic structure was built during the years betwen 226–651 Naqshe Jahan square in Isfahan is the epitome of 16th century Iranian architecture. It is also the sixth largest square worldwide. The Shah Mosque in Isfahan, constructed in 1629. The 18th century Abbasian House, Kashan. Tehran's Museum of Contemporary Arts designed by Kamran Diba is based on traditional Iranian elements such as Badgirs, and yet has a spiraling interior reminiscent of Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim. The Persian architect, Ostad Isa Shirazi is most often credited as the chief architect (or plan drawer) of the Taj Mahal. Outside of Iran Traditional Nigerian Architecture Clay houses decorated with low-relief ornament and vibrant designs exhibiting contemporary vernacular architecture in Zaria, Nigeria. Igbo architecture The Gida Dan Hausa house in Northern Nigeria Meeting place of the Nigerian National Assembly Nigerian National Mosque in Abuja Abuja
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