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History of the Atomic Structure

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Makayla K

on 30 September 2013

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Transcript of History of the Atomic Structure

A History of The Atom!!!!!
By:
Karinna Cain- James Chadwick
Cody Slyter- Neils Bohr
Bailey Landis- Robert Milikan
Rebekah Anderson- J.J. Thompson & Henry Moseley
Makayla Kosberg- Ernest Rutherford & Marie Curie

James Chadwick
Born: October 20, 1891 in Cheshire, United Kingdom
Died: July 24, 1974 in Cambridge United Kingdom
He Discovered the Neutron in 1932

Robert Millikan
Born on March 22nd, 1868 and died at age 85 due to a heart attack on December 19th, 1953
Time Period of the experiment
Robert Millikan discovered the falling-drop method in 1910.
Ernest Rutherford
Explanation of His Experiment
J. J. Thomson
Cathode Ray Experiments
Born- August 30, 1871 in Brightwater, New Zealand

Died- October 19, 1937 in Cambridge, United Kingdom
1st Experiment
J.J. hypothesized that the cathode rays coming from the electron gun could not be separated from the latent charge. Using a magnetic field, he began his experiment to prove this. To start, he built a cathode ray tube that included a metal cylinder on the end with two slits. Each was connected to electrometers. A magnetic field was applied, but nothing happened. Since the charge had bent away from the magnet he concluded the negative charge and the ray were inseparable.
Rutherford discovered his model of the atom through the Gold Foil Experiment. He took a piece of gold foil and shot alpha particles at it, thinking that the particles should shoot right through the gold, as atoms were though to be empty space. While most of the particles did indeed go straight through the gold foil, some did not. This lead Rutherford to believe there was more to atoms than what was originally thought. He realized they were more then just dead weight and they had to have a positively charged center, orbited by a negatively charged particles. Rutherford discovered that atoms have a nucleus, protons, and electrons.
The Gold Foil Experiment
Ernest started experimenting with atoms in the early 1900s and continued for more than 20 years. The gold foil experiment was conducted from 1909 until 1911.
When Ernest Worked
with Atoms
A picture of Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment
Ernest's Model
Of the Atom
Birth and Death
of Ernest Rutherford
In the World at That Same Time...
A Timeline of Events
Neils Bohr
This is the same time the William Taft was president of the United States. He was president from 1909-1913.
Marie Curie
Born: November 7, 1867 in Warsaw, Poland

Died: July 4, 1934 in Passy, France
Birth and Death of Marie Curie
When Marie
Worked
With Atoms
Marie Curie and the Model an Atom
In the World At That Same Time...
Influence on Atomic Theory
Through her research of radioactivity, Marie Curie discovered that atoms were divisible. When something is radioactive, it emits time rays of particles. She realized since atoms could relase off smaller particles, then they were not indivisible. Up until this point, atoms were thought to be unbreakable. When she proved this was not the case, it lead us closer to finding what atoms truly are like.
She also discovered the element radium.
Marie Curie did scientific research through the years of 1897- 1904. However, most of that was not specifically with atoms, but on elements, radioactivity and other scientific things.
This was around the time of the Spanish- American War, which happened in 1898.
Marie worked with radiation in the nucleas of an atom, where she saw particles being omitted through rays.
1904
Marie Curie researches on atoms
Ernest Rutherford conducts the Gold Foil Experiment
1911
2nd Experiment
Continuing on from the 1st experiment, Thomson added on by trying to deflect the rays with an electric field. Constructing a new and altered cathode ray tube, he made it have a near perfect vacuum. In the vacuum, there were two electric plates, one with a positive anode and one with a negative cathode. The rays were deflected by the electric charge. The rays were deflected by the electric charge. This means the rays held charged particles carrying a negative charge.
3rd Experiment
J.J. still didn't understand the nature of the particles though, even with the past two experiments. To try and figure out the mass and charge of these particles, he tried to deduce this from the varying degrees they were bent electrical currents of different values. He decided that the particles were a least a thousand times smaller than a hydrogen ion.
Conclusion
Cathode rays held and were made of particles that came from the atoms themselves. J.J. Thomson was the first to theorize that atoms had a complicated internal structure.
Birth and Death of Joseph John Thomson
Born December 18, 1856 and died on August 30, 1940.
Experiment Picture

Thomson's experiments took place in the year 1897
At the Same Time
William McKinley was inaugurated as the 25th President of the United States on March 4, 1897.
What the Atom Looked Like As a Result
J.J. Thomson was born
1856

Websites:
http://www.explorable.com/cathode-ray-experiment
http://www.historyorb.com/events/date/1897
1897
J.J. Thomson conducts his Cathode Ray Experiments

1940
J.J. Thomson dies
William McKinley inaugurated as the 25th President

1897
Henry Moseley
Henry Moseley was born November 23, 1887 and died on August 10, 1915.
Birth and Death
Experiment Explanation
Before, no one was able to measure or really explain the atomic number. It was just a position of an element in the Periodic Table sequence. To find out how it all worked, he used the new technology of an electron gun to fire a stream of electrons at different samples of varying elements.These elements then gave off X-ray, which then Moseley measured. Each element emitted a different frequency that was mathematically related to the position of the element in the Periodic Table. Moseley made measuring the atomic number of an element possible.
Conclusion
This experiment proved that atomic numbers were not just randomly assigned, but actually have a strong physical basis. Furthermore, Moseley's Law provided a pretty complete experimental set of data that supported Rutherford and Broek's theory of the atom. A positively-charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The atomic number is then the exact number of positive charge.
Picture of Experiment

Henry Moseley conducted his experiment around the year 1913
At That Same Time
Henry Ford institutes the moving assembly line on October 7, 1913
Result of Henry Moseley's Work




Websites:
http://www.historyorb.com/events/date/1913?p=2
http://www.rsc.org/education/teachers/resources/periodictable/pre16/order/atomicnumber.htm
Oil Drop Experiment
Milikan put a charge on a tiny drop of oil, and measured how strong an applied electric field had to be in order to keep the oil drop from falling.
Time Period
During Robert Milikan's experiment, World War One was about to break out.


Results
In the experiment they would have radiation coming out of one source and have it aimed at the beryllium but the detector wouldn't go off but saying something went there it because the neutrons had a neutral reaction, because they knew something was happening they put paraffin wax in front of the radiation too. Then the detector started going off again because the protons were getting threw and it detected there positively charged particles. So then they discovered that there had to be an in between particle that had no charge.Thus, Chadwick finding the neutron.
His Model of the Atom
Websites

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dp32ne.html

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1935/chadwick-bio.html
James Chadwick was born
1891
James Chadwick dies

1974
James Chadwick discovers the Neutron
1932
Henry Moseley was born
1887

1915
Henry Moseley dies
Henry Moseley conducts his X-ray Experiment
1913
1913
Henry Ford institutes the moving assembly

Neils Borh
Born October 7 1885
Neils Borh Died November 18 1962
Born October 7 1885
Died November 18 1962
He conducted his experiment in 1922.

Niels Bohr model of the atom is very small, positively charged nucleus which contains proton and neutron surrounded by negatively charged electrons. This negatively charged electrons travel in circular orbits around the nucleolus. Niels Bohr atomic model is more similar to the solar system. But in Niels Bohr atomic model, electro static force providing attraction force rather then gravity force.
The world war 1 was going on at the same time we had been fighting in it for 5 years.
He conducted his experiment in 1922.
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