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The Enlightenment--Causes and Effects

Humanities/Global project
by

O Miller

on 14 November 2012

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Transcript of The Enlightenment--Causes and Effects

The Enlightenment Causes and Effects Enlightenment Philosophers Focused on defining government and hypothesizing ways to make them most fair and efficient Montesquieu a) The Spirit of Law (1750)
b) Separation of Church and State
c) Checks and Balances Voltaire a) Candide (1759)
b) Freedom of Speech Rousseau a) The Social Contract (1762)
b) Popular Sovereignty
c) General Will Locke a) Treatise of Government (1689)
b) Rights of Man
c) Defined Governments purpose The Scientific Revolution Change in thinking where people used reason instead of following the church Proved that the church was incorrect in some subjects, and therefore they lost credibility and power People wanted their place in the universe People wanted to solve societies problems using rational thinking EFFECTS Democracy Rights Separation of Power CAUSES Effects of Rousseau Popular Sovereignty:
If the majority of a country the government should listen to the people. Elections take place regularly in democracies. People can vote for leaders and representatives based on their needs or vote directly on issues. Democracy in America:
Representative Democracy Citizens vote annually for representatives who make decisions for them Representatives deal with laws not the people directly Vote for mayors, senators, governors, presidents, etc. When representatives try to get laws passed they must also have a majority vote Democracy in Switzerland:
Direct Democracy People are given the power to participate in the legislative process Results of opinion polls and referendum given to people determine changes to the constitution and other laws. Popular initiative: 100,000 citizens may demand a constitutional change by signing a form, which the parliament may accept to reject. If they accept it, the citizens have final say through referendum. Democracy in Australia Division into Electorates: A decision requires a majority vote in a majority of the subdivisions Parliamentary Democracy Vote for people to make decisions for them Members of parliament are voted on Parliament members vote for the prime minister, the chief decider Ministers vote on issues Effects of Montesquieu Separation of Power in America Separation of Power in Switzerland Separation of Power in Australia Three Branches: So not one authority has all power Legislative: Congress Purpose: To make laws
-House of representatives

-Senate 1) Governors from each state selected by citizens
2) The amount of the representatives depends on the number of citizens 1) Two senators per each state
2) 100 total Executive: President and Cabinet
Purpose: Carry out laws

1) One president elected every four years
2) Department heads appointed by president Cabinet Departments: Justice, State, Treasury, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Defense, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, Education, and Homeland Security Judicial: Supreme Court
Judges interpret law

1) Judges are appointed by the president and stay for life.
2) Apply law with justice in mind not political concerns
3) Interpret law for lower courts to abide to, since they rarely hear cases themselves. Checks and Balances: So the branches can make sure the others are doing their job correctly. Legislative Checks
1) Override veto
2) Impeach presidents or judges
3) Approves treaties
4) Approves presidential appointments or judge appointments Executive checks:
1) May veto legislation
2) May recommend legislation
3) May appoint supreme court and federal judges Judicial Checks
1) Judges are appointed for life and are free from the control of the executive branch
2) Courts may judge legislation or executive actions to be unconstitutional Legislative: Federal Assembly Parliament
-Council of States (Upper House, 46 seats)

-National Council (Lower House, 200 seats) 20 Cantons (States) send two Councilors each 200 seats are distributed to each canton, based on their population Executive: Swiss Federal Council -A cabinet and presidency
-Seven members elected for four year terms by the Federal Assembly
-One of the seven is the president, who has no more power than the others
-Each Federal Councilor heads a government department Judiciary: "Federal Supreme Court"

1)Members are elected for 6 year terms
2)Court has jurisdiction over violations of federal, public international, inter-cantonal law, cantonal constitutional rights, and federal provisions concerning political rights
3)Court may not review acts of the Federal Parliament due to their direct democracy Checks and Balances is used for all branches Three Branches, although there is little separation between executive and legislative Legislative: Australian Federal Parliament
1) Legislative Council-150 Members
2) Legislative Assembly-76 Senators (12 per state, 2 per territory) Executive: Executive Council (Ministry)

1)Prime Minister is head of government (Premier)
-Manages daily activities of the government

2)Cabinet-Parliament members nominated by the Prime Minister serve as government ministers

3)Monarch is the Chief or Head of State (Governor) Checks and Balances: The Judicial branch must check Executive and Legislative and vice versa Any Human Rights laws that protect people were influenced by Enlightenment Effects of Voltaire Voltaire said everyone should have free speech no matter their opinions
1)"I may not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it"
2)Voltaire supported freedom of speech and religion American Bill of Rights
-1st Amendment: The Government can't stop people from voicing their opinions through speech, press, or petition
"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion...abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances." (U.S. Const., am. I) French Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789)
-Right Number 11: calls the right to free communication "one of the most precious of the rights of man." United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights
-Article 19: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers." Swiss Bill of Rights
1) Article 15: Freedom of Religion and Philosophy
-"All persons have the right to choose their religion or philosophical convictions freely, and to profess them alone or in community with others."
2) Article 16: Freedom of Opinion and Information
-"All persons have the right to form, express, and disseminate their opinions freely." Effects of Locke John Locke said that people had 3 natural rights: life, liberty, and property
1)The purpose of government has to protect these rights
2)If the government isn't doing its job, the people have the right to overthrow it In America
1) American Declaration of Independence
-The phrase "Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" is derived from Locke's principle
2) If citizens wish to overthrow the government, they should vote for a new representative Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1) Article 3 states that everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of person Judicial: High Court
-7 justices appointed by the governor general serve until age 70
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