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Chapter 9 Section 1
Transcript of Chapter 9 Section 1
Identify lands gained by the U.S. by the Convention of 1818 and Adams-Onis Treaty.
Recognize the effects of the Monroe Doctrine.
Settling Disputes with Great Britain
The Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812, but there were issues left unresolved.
The Rush-Bagot Agreement limited naval power on the Great Lakes for the U.S. and Canada.
A treaty known as the Convention of 1818, set the border between the U.S. and Canada at 49 degrees N. The U.S. and Britain agreed to jointly occupy Oregon, which would cause later problems.
The U.S. Gains Florida
James Monroe was elected president in 1816.
There had been ongoing disputes between the U.S. and the Spanish in Florida and the Seminole Indians.
Andrew Jackson led a force of soldiers into Florida to fight the Seminoles.
He also captured most of Spain's important military posts and captured the Spanish governor of Florida.
Under this pressure, the Spanish and U.S. Sec. of State John Quincy Adams signed the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819, which gave Florida to the U.S.
The Monroe Doctrine
Spain had other issues than Florida. By the early 1820s, most Spanish colonies in the Americas had declared independence.
A revolutionary leaders named Simon Bolivar led many of these struggles that were ignited by the American Revolution.
President Monroe was worried that as Latin American countries broke from Spain, other European countries might try to take control of them.
Britain had strong trading relationships with most of these countries, and wanted to work with the U.S. to keep other European countries from interfering.
The Monroe Doctrine
Instead of issuing a joint statement with the British, President Monroe and Secretary of State Adams put together a document that protected American interests.
Known as the Monroe Doctrine, it was an exclusive statement of American policy warning European powers not to interfere with the Americas. It was issued on December 2, 1823 during the President's annual message to Congress (The State of the Union Address).
The Monroe Doctrine
"The occasion has been judged proper for asserting...that the American continents...are henceforth not to be considered subjects for future colonization by any European powers...The political system of the allied powers is essentially different...from that of America. We...declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety...With the existing colonies...we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the government who have declared their independence and maintained it, and who independence we have...acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them..by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States."
-President James Monroe, The Monroe Doctrine, 1823
U.S. Expansion and the Monroe Doctrine
On the map above, "A" marks the land gained by the Convention of 1818 from Great Britain.
"B" marks Florida, which was gained from Spain by the Adams-Onis Treaty.
The Monroe Doctrine basically has four parts:
1. The U.S. will not interfere in the affairs of European nations.
2. The U.S. will recognize, and not interfere with, European colonies that already exist in North and South America.
3. The Western Hemisphere is off-limits to future colonization by any foreign power.
4. The U.S. government will consider any European power's attempt to colonize or interfere with nations in the Western Hemisphere a hostile act.