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Ecstasy

Danielle Vargas Caitlin VanderMolen
by

caitlin vandermolen

on 7 May 2010

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Transcript of Ecstasy

Ecstasy by: Danielle Vargas
Caitlin VanderMolen -"MDMA"
-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
-synthetic, psychoactive drug
-stimulant, hallucinogenic properties
-"club drug"
-"E, XTC, Eggs, Adam, Burgers, Disco Biscuits, Hug Drugs, New Yorkers, Fantasia"
- injested, crushed, snorted, or injected Ecstasy's History -1912-created by Mannish and Jacobsohn as a weight loss drug
-1950s - US Military- used as a truth agent
-1960- used by Alexander Shulgin in psychietry practice
-"empathy" --> "ecstasy" Ecstasy's History cont. -1984 - popularity grew
-1985 - people sued to prevent drug from being made illegal
- June of 1985 - banned by Congress; made illegal
- early 1990s - rave culture moved to the US Raves and The Use of Ecstasy -promoted as "alcohol-free party"
- drug is taken in pill form
-suppresses the need to eat, drink, or sleep
-"stacking" or "piggy-backing"
-increases body temperature, teeth clenching, blurred vision, sweating, heart rate, and blood pressure
Selling and Distributing Risks and Long-Term Affects Ecstasy in the Body The "High" Breaking the Habit MDMA Facts and Statistics Arrests and Sentencing -Netherlands, Belgium, Canada
-smuggled into US via body carriers, air/sea cargo, luggage, and express mail
-domestic production is limited
-one million MDMA tablets per month
-usually tablet form; also in capsules, powder, and liquid forms
-use logos to coincide with holidays and to distinguish drug from others
-prices range from $3 - $45 per tablet
-usually sells between $20-$30
-Florida leads the nation in MDMA seizures; south Florida is used by the traffickers as the base of operation for the importation/distribution of MDMA
-in 2000, 6.4 million people age 12 and older reported using ecstasy at least once in their lives
-men are slightly more likely to use MDMA than women
-Ecstasy traces can be found on 5% of English money -arrest numbers have decreased from early 2000s
- 1,506 arrests in 2002; 690 arrests in 2006
-November 1, 2001- new sentence for trafficking MDMA pills - 15 months --> 5 years
-amount considered "supply"-3 pills
-max. punishment (supply)-life and unlimited fine; max. punishment (possession)-7 years and unlimited fine
-average punishment-2 years, 2 months
-punishment varies on size of possession
-ADAM II program gathers information on drug offenders

Legalizing the Drug -Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) advocates MDMA, psylosibin, and marijuana for medicinal purposes
-seeks FDA approval in psychoanalysis
-In 1999, FDA rejected MDMA on the grounds of possible cognitive and memory impairment
-MAPS continues their work -not physically addictive
-however, people become compulsive in their use
-simple detox
-rehabilitation centers -ecstasy overdoses can be fatal
-anxiety, paranoia, tremors, involuntary teeth clenching, seizures, heat strokes
-can lose up to 6 pints of fluid in 6 hours
-damage to the liver
-increased body temperature-->kidney failure
-increased heart rate + blood pressure --> heart wall stress
-damages specific neurons in the brain
-cognitive deficits; problems with memory, depression, sleeping problems -positive feelings; euphoria
-empathy for others
-increased energy
-distorts time and sensory perceptions
-increased sexual/sensual arousal
-increased "need" to be touched and for stimulation

-chemical structure of Ecstasy reaches the brain quickly after ingested
-pill disintegrates, molecules absorbed into bloodstream
- In the liver, MDMA metabolizes into inactive compounds and the rest goes to veins of the heart
-blood from heart carries MDMA to the brain
- parts of the brain affected: neocortex and limbic system
-affects body in about 15 min
- affects the neurotransmitters: serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine
- serotonin controls mood, appetite, emotions, aggression, sleep, memory, and perception
- causes serotonin to work in reverse mode
-Serotonin stored in small vesicles
-electrical impulses cause release of serotonin into synaptic space
-Serotonin binds to proteins called receptors
-serotonin is only in synaptic space for limited time
-ecstasy binding to serotonin transporters results in more serotonin
-more serotonin is present in synaptic space and more serotonin receptors are activiated
- after four hours of serotonin being removed from synapse, the monoamine oxidase continues to break down
- as the level of serotonin drops, the serotonin levels have been wiped out by over use
- targets dopamine transporters and increase in dopamine levels
- dopamine transmitters releases “happy” output
- presents a problem when they get trapped in the serotonin transporters
- dopamine is extremely harmful to serotonin
- dopamine, once in the serotonin cell, gets broken down by the monoamine oxidase into hydrogen peroxide
- this effect shuts down the cell temporarily and sometimes permanently
Pros: the "high", not "addictive", medicinal purposes, greater regulation

Cons: health risks and damage
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