Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.



Danielle Vargas Caitlin VanderMolen

caitlin vandermolen

on 7 May 2010

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Ecstasy

Ecstasy by: Danielle Vargas
Caitlin VanderMolen -"MDMA"
-synthetic, psychoactive drug
-stimulant, hallucinogenic properties
-"club drug"
-"E, XTC, Eggs, Adam, Burgers, Disco Biscuits, Hug Drugs, New Yorkers, Fantasia"
- injested, crushed, snorted, or injected Ecstasy's History -1912-created by Mannish and Jacobsohn as a weight loss drug
-1950s - US Military- used as a truth agent
-1960- used by Alexander Shulgin in psychietry practice
-"empathy" --> "ecstasy" Ecstasy's History cont. -1984 - popularity grew
-1985 - people sued to prevent drug from being made illegal
- June of 1985 - banned by Congress; made illegal
- early 1990s - rave culture moved to the US Raves and The Use of Ecstasy -promoted as "alcohol-free party"
- drug is taken in pill form
-suppresses the need to eat, drink, or sleep
-"stacking" or "piggy-backing"
-increases body temperature, teeth clenching, blurred vision, sweating, heart rate, and blood pressure
Selling and Distributing Risks and Long-Term Affects Ecstasy in the Body The "High" Breaking the Habit MDMA Facts and Statistics Arrests and Sentencing -Netherlands, Belgium, Canada
-smuggled into US via body carriers, air/sea cargo, luggage, and express mail
-domestic production is limited
-one million MDMA tablets per month
-usually tablet form; also in capsules, powder, and liquid forms
-use logos to coincide with holidays and to distinguish drug from others
-prices range from $3 - $45 per tablet
-usually sells between $20-$30
-Florida leads the nation in MDMA seizures; south Florida is used by the traffickers as the base of operation for the importation/distribution of MDMA
-in 2000, 6.4 million people age 12 and older reported using ecstasy at least once in their lives
-men are slightly more likely to use MDMA than women
-Ecstasy traces can be found on 5% of English money -arrest numbers have decreased from early 2000s
- 1,506 arrests in 2002; 690 arrests in 2006
-November 1, 2001- new sentence for trafficking MDMA pills - 15 months --> 5 years
-amount considered "supply"-3 pills
-max. punishment (supply)-life and unlimited fine; max. punishment (possession)-7 years and unlimited fine
-average punishment-2 years, 2 months
-punishment varies on size of possession
-ADAM II program gathers information on drug offenders

Legalizing the Drug -Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) advocates MDMA, psylosibin, and marijuana for medicinal purposes
-seeks FDA approval in psychoanalysis
-In 1999, FDA rejected MDMA on the grounds of possible cognitive and memory impairment
-MAPS continues their work -not physically addictive
-however, people become compulsive in their use
-simple detox
-rehabilitation centers -ecstasy overdoses can be fatal
-anxiety, paranoia, tremors, involuntary teeth clenching, seizures, heat strokes
-can lose up to 6 pints of fluid in 6 hours
-damage to the liver
-increased body temperature-->kidney failure
-increased heart rate + blood pressure --> heart wall stress
-damages specific neurons in the brain
-cognitive deficits; problems with memory, depression, sleeping problems -positive feelings; euphoria
-empathy for others
-increased energy
-distorts time and sensory perceptions
-increased sexual/sensual arousal
-increased "need" to be touched and for stimulation

-chemical structure of Ecstasy reaches the brain quickly after ingested
-pill disintegrates, molecules absorbed into bloodstream
- In the liver, MDMA metabolizes into inactive compounds and the rest goes to veins of the heart
-blood from heart carries MDMA to the brain
- parts of the brain affected: neocortex and limbic system
-affects body in about 15 min
- affects the neurotransmitters: serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine
- serotonin controls mood, appetite, emotions, aggression, sleep, memory, and perception
- causes serotonin to work in reverse mode
-Serotonin stored in small vesicles
-electrical impulses cause release of serotonin into synaptic space
-Serotonin binds to proteins called receptors
-serotonin is only in synaptic space for limited time
-ecstasy binding to serotonin transporters results in more serotonin
-more serotonin is present in synaptic space and more serotonin receptors are activiated
- after four hours of serotonin being removed from synapse, the monoamine oxidase continues to break down
- as the level of serotonin drops, the serotonin levels have been wiped out by over use
- targets dopamine transporters and increase in dopamine levels
- dopamine transmitters releases “happy” output
- presents a problem when they get trapped in the serotonin transporters
- dopamine is extremely harmful to serotonin
- dopamine, once in the serotonin cell, gets broken down by the monoamine oxidase into hydrogen peroxide
- this effect shuts down the cell temporarily and sometimes permanently
Pros: the "high", not "addictive", medicinal purposes, greater regulation

Cons: health risks and damage
Full transcript