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Transcript of CITIZEN JOURNALISM
journalism what is it? why it came about? who are the stakeholders? The term ‘CITIZEN JOURNALISM’ encompasses
the production of journalistic endeavours
by individuals or groups,
without the formal training and professionalism
of mainstream journalists,
and without the constraints
imposed by traditional media organisations definition essential elements alternative names Citizen Journalism is known by many different names.
The importance of these alternative names is that they give an idea of the
underpinning the concept of Citizen Journalism Citizen media emphasising
ordinary citizens Radical media the media of
political and social change Participatory journalism the importance of ordinary people
in the collection
news and information Alternative journalism highlights that this form of journalism
the conventions of mainstream media
challenges the power
mainstream media organisations But citizen journalism, in its various forms, has a long history that precedes modern technology.
Looking at the various names , one gets a sense of the origins and purposes of this form of journalism This was the journalism of political activism, the voice used to empower and incite ordinary citizens in order to construct a political identity that was not at one with the political identity promoted by the mainstream media. It was seen as a mechanism
initiate and facilitate
social change Citizen journalism was also seen as a form of
in which involvement in the process of news production was considered a more critical component
than the end-product that invited readership It was said to be an
inclusive and populist medium,
where everyone could participate
in the selection and
of news and ideas. The forms that citizen journalism took were
generally determined by the underlying ideology These included community radio, underground or “guerrilla” newspapers, leaflets, cartoons, flyers, posters, murals and even graffiti and street theatre All the concepts
citizen journalism still exist What has changed is the predominant mode of
production and dissemination of citizen journalism so much so that
current descriptions and understanding of
with the existence of new technologies Current information would have you believe
that citizen journalism
is the PRODUCT of modern technologies presentation by Rae Leibowitz what's in the name? The idea behind citizen journalism is that people without professional journalism training can use the tools of modern technology and the global distribution of the Internet to create, augment or fact-check media on their own or in collaboration with others. For example, you might write about a city council meeting on your blog or in an online forum. Or you could fact-check a newspaper article from the mainstream media and point out factual errors or bias on your blog. Or you might snap a digital photo of a newsworthy event happening in your town and post it online. Or you might videotape a similar event and post it on a site such as YouTube.
Mark Glaser (September 27, 2006). "Your Guide to Citizen Journalism". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved March 22, 2009 Key writers who have studied the influence of theoretical ideologies on the concept of citizen journalism and its various names include Atton (2002)
Downing, Ford, Gil and Stein (2001)
Rodriguez (2001) The handbook of journalism studies, Wahl-Jorgensen and Hanitzsch, chapter 19. This is evident from the examples offered in this
classification for citizen journalism by JD Lasica (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr audience /
citizen journalist media organizationsmainstream /
alternate professional journalists/
freelance journalists news sources sources sources competitors competitors competitors collaborators collaborators collaborators an overview ...... This is an enormous subject in an ever-growing field.
It impacts on every aspect of the study of journalism, and studies and debate about its impact and relevance on news production abound.
Scholars of media are polarised in their attitude :
It is described by some as the potential savior of mainstream media and by others as the perpetrator of the demise of mainstream media.
I am presenting simply a brief overview of the subject, touching on its definition, history and format, the risks and benefits to the major stakeholders.
In the interests of brevity, specific studies have not been discussed - only authors have been named or quoted.
Further information is available in the reference section at the end, and I am happy to furnish printed copies of these for anyone interested in more details. at the outset ..... citizen journalism media organizations audience/
citizen journalists professional journalist/
freelance journalists what's in it for them? what's in it for them? what's in it for them? 1.Audience participation (such as user comments attached to news stories, personal blogs, photos or video footage captured from personal mobile cameras or local news written by residents of a community) 2.Independent news and information Websites (Consumer Reports, the Drudge Report) 3.Full-fledged participatory news sites (NowPublic, OhmyNews, Digital Journal.com, GroundReport) 4.Collaborative and contributory media sites (Slashdot, Kuro5hin, Newsvine) 5.Other kinds of "thin media." (mailing lists, email newsletters) 6.Personal broadcasting sites (video broadcast sites such as KenRadio). Lasica, J. D. "What is Participatory Journalism?" 2003-08-07, Online Journalism Review,
August 7, 2003 common to all
are the definition elements citizen journalism in the internet era
can be conceptualised as
the contribution ,
in all the technological formats,
of user-generated content The answer, in part, depends on the perspective of the stakeholder ..... Do the benefits outweigh the risks? What are the risks and benefits? the audience are the major stakeholders
they ARE the citizen journalists
they are the contributors of user generated content
and are no longer on the receiving end of a one way media system Think of passengers on your ship who got a boat of their own. The writing readers. The viewers who picked up a camera. The formerly atomized listeners who with mpodest effort can connect with each other and gain the means to speak - to the world, as it were
Jay Rosen http:/journalism.nyu.edu/pubzone no longer "just" the audience, citizen journalists can : “The venerable profession of journalism finds itself at a rare moment in history
where, for the first time, its hegemony as gatekeeper of the news is threatened by
not just new technology and competitors but, potentially, by the audience it serves.
Armed with easy-to-use Web publishing tools, always-on connections and
increasingly powerful mobile devices, the online audience has the means to become
an active participant in the creation and dissemination of news and information.
And it’s doing just that on the Internet” Bowman, Shayne., Willis, Chris., We Media: How audiences are shaping the future of news and information, The Media Center at the American Press Institute 2003 benefits and risks Citizen journalism is a growing phenomenon with benefits and risks amateur journalists acting outside the constraints of media organisations The benefits, to the writer, depend on the reason for writing ....
self expression, creativity, agenda setting, involvement in the bigger
picture, contributing in a meaningful way are all powerful motivators in different ways. Their motive can be socially constructive, destructive or inconsequential Hidden behind the anonymity of the internet, and with the ease of transmission and lack of controls, citizen journalists have relatively unlimited opportunity for globally created mayhem. The opennewsroom.com Benefits: Risks: Benefits: Risks: REFERENCES: PRESENTATION
1 Wahl-Jorgensen, K. & Hanitzsch, T. [eds.) (2009). The Handbook of Journalism Studies. Madison Ave., New York: Routledge
2 Rodriguez,C. (2000). Fissures in the mediascape: An international study of citizens’ media. Cresskill, NY: Hampton Press
3 Downing, J. (1984). Radical media: The political experience of alternative communication. Boston: South End Press.
4 Atton,C. (2003a) What is “alternative” journalism? Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism, 4(3), 267-272
5 Cauldry, N. (2000). Alternative media and mediated community.Paper presented at the International Association for Media and Communication Research. Barcelona. 23 July.
6 Glaser , M. (2006). "Your Guide to Citizen Journalism". Public Broadcasting Service.
7 Ford, S., Foxwell, K., Meadows, M. ( 2003). Through the lens of the local: Public arena journalism in the Australian community broadcasting sector. Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism, 4(3), 314-335
8 Lasica, J. D. (2003) "What is Participatory Journalism?" Online Journalism Review, August 7, 2003
9 Rosen, J. http:/journalism.nyu.edu/pubzone
10 Bowman, Shayne., Willis, Chris., We Media: How audiences are shaping the future of news and information, The Media Center at the American Press Institute 2003
11 Image: http://abcnews.go.com/topics/news/anti-islam-film-protests.htm
12 Murwira, W. http://www.theopennewsroom.com 11 1 2 3 4 4, 5 6 2,3 7,2 8 3 8 9 10 12 Competition - threat to established format of journalism Risks associated with amateur status: unregulated, subjective, haphazard in quality and coverage Outside of gate-keeping safeguards No adherence to core values of journalism: Diversification to online websites utilising citizen journalists eg: (CNNireport) Material provided in crisis situations where regular journalists not available Immediacy of coverage improved Large numbers of citizen journalists providing potential news stories over wide range of topics No employer responsibility towards citizen journalists Subjective Lack ethics Hidden agenda Lack of verification publish independently via blogs, facebook, tweets, you tube ... contribute to alternative web news sites (for example OhMyNews) contribute to mainstream media (for example witnesses of tsuanmi who sent stories and photos or video to BBC, CNN ...) The Benefits Citizen journalists can be independent or collaborative; they can create for a small audience, or have the potential to reach the world. They can create intended or unintentional havoc. The Risks The risks are no less than those of professional journalists Additionally, there are the risks of operating independently with no legal structure, no gatekeeper safeguards and no journalistic core values Citizen journalists considered as sources in traditional sense Interest generated by citizen journalism blogs and comments on story keep story alive longer Collaborative journalism – practice of professional and non-professional journalists working together (eg OhmyNews Denigrates the professionalism of trained journalist by lack of objectivity and ethics and by amateur status, and failure to uphold core values of traditional journalistic practice Competitors •The journalists are
amateurs •They work outside of the
mainstream media organisations