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Envi Sci - Land Use

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by

Teresa Friedrichsen

on 9 December 2016

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Transcript of Envi Sci - Land Use

4 min. mining reclamation
3 min how landfill works
urban
forests
wastes
agriculture
grazing animals
mining
LAND USE
houses, transport, & business
irrigation
plowing
fertilizer
pesticides & herbicides
3 min pesticide resistance
6.5 min roundup resistance
3 min no till
15 min Curitiba, Brazil
4 min cook stove
problem:
problems
problems
problems
22 min Solutions Ted
2 min nematodes
pesticides
3 min solutions
herbicides
problems
solutions
solutions
solutions
problem
problems
solutions
solutions
problems
problems
solutions
solution
solutions
solutions
solutions
pasture - plowed & planted to provide forage
rangeland - no plowing or planting
wastes -> pollution
overgrazing:
too many animals on land
more desirable plants eaten & can't reproduce
undesirable plants become more common
desertification:
process of creating a desert where one did not exist before
deforestation
intensive farming
overgrazing
poisoning soil from chemicals
limit # animals
allow land to recover
kill invasives, plant natives
use wastes for fertilizer
leachate
solid waste disposal
recycle
reuse
reduce
toxins odor
all liners leak
air pollution
water pollution
watch 1st 2 min: trash to electricity
textbook:
Allan Savory:
increase ?
move ?
how does he disagree with book?
if it can't be grown it has to be mined
urbanization: movement of people from rural to urban looking for jobs
maintaining infrastructure: to keep up with population growth - ex. roads, schools, police, medical
urban sprawl: expanding cities onto marginal lands
higher temps: pavement & buildings collect heat
land use planning
mass transit systems
more open space for runoff & recreation
deforestation
clearing forests w/o replanting
destabilizes soil increases erosion
loss of nitrates
increased CO2 released
desertification
reasons:
lumber & paper
fuel - especially developing countries
conversion to crops or range
tree death from disease or pollution
forest sustainability
reforestation - either naturally or by humans
protection - worldwide, 90% not managed
fuel pellets - replace charcoal or wood
croplands - used more efficiently
feedlot
process
removal
refining
surface, open pit, strip
underground or tunnel
minerals like copper, aluminum, iron, gold in ore; rocks like coal
removal of minerals from ore (rocks that contain minerals)
requires lots of energy
acids & other chemicals can run into lakes & rivers
air pollution
produces solid waste
mines can collapse
restoration or reclamation:
return to original condition
required, expensive & takes years
21 min Story of Stuff
methane gas
pollution: water & air
results:
soil loses fertility because crops use up nutrients & are then harvested & removed
erosion of topsoil by wind & water into streams, rivers, estuaries where sediment covers aquatic breeding grounds
desertification
contour plowing
no till: weeds suppressed but not killed
build terraces on steep slopes
leave strips of vegetation across slopes
over-fertilization leads to water pollution
rotate crops
grow GMF
use compost instead
3 min
kill pests
kill weeds
resistance
pollution
biological magnification
resistant organisms don't die & pass genes for resistance to offspring
blows in wind
washes into water
in bodies of organisms
chemicals become concentrated in bodies of organisms
higher in food chain, more concentrated the chemical
rotate crop diversity
rotate herbicide diversity
biological control - natural predators & parasites
Integrated Pest Management - uses least hazardous control method
rotate crops so pests can't find preferred plant
salinization
when ground water (contains more salt than rainwater)
is used for overhead irrigation water evaporates & leaves salt behind to accumulate in soil
erosion
"I'm farming & I grow it"
drip irrigation
18 min ted how ag changing world
nitrates & phosphates added to increase growth
loosening the soil for planting
overhead
inorganic fertilizer created to help feed more people
3 min 10 worst polluted places
20 min what world eats
5.5 min GMOs pros & cons
4 min farming in developing countries
Growing plants is cheaper to produce than animals because it uses less water & energy

2. Eat lower on food chain

Is it more efficient to eat beef or wheat?
Vertical farming
Aquaponics
Organic farming
3. New & more efficient farming practices

Gene (piece of DNA) from one organism is spliced into DNA of another organism
Organism has new trait that would be impossible to obtain naturally
GMFs or GMOs are produced by genetic engineering
Is it more efficient to eat beef or wheat?
Develop better access to local markets
Distribute food more evenly

9 min organic vs conventional farming
4 min vertical aquaponics
4. Reduce food waste
2.5 min inglorious food
3 min what is GMO?
1. plant GMO (vs non- GMO?)
enough food?
growing crops

5. Support small farmers
11 min sci show
5 min mining & refining gold
9 min PBS
4 min vegetarian eating
3.5 min vertical farming NJ
A. contour plowing
B. manure containment lagoon
C. cattle watering structure
D. erosion barriers
E. plowing steep slopes
F. manure spread on frozen field
G. cattle in stream
H. poor erosion control
Full transcript