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Introduction to Language
Transcript of Introduction to Language
Introducing Spoken Language
Speech is one of the main '
' of English Language
between spoken and
Are there ever any overlaps between the two?
Consider the different purposes of speech and writing
Consider the different audiences of speech and writing
Think about the different
examples you read/hear
every day - for example:
a conversation between friends
a newsreader on TV
a letter from the bank
a message on Facebook...etc etc!
Most of our speech is unplanned - we
make it up as we go along.This is called
In some situations, such as acting and
giving presentations, we have already
planned our speech ahead of time. This
Entertainment is often scripted, which means the speech is prepared. In these next three clips, think about:
a) what the purpose of the prepared speech is
b) how this purpose is being achieved
The study of the part that language plays in social situations and social relationships
Pragmatics seeks to explore hidden or implicit meanings, as well as the values and attitudes expressed through writers' or speakers' use of language
Another term for vocabulary - the different variety of words used.
The study of word meanings
A variety of language (or dialect) used by a particular social group
Discuss the socio-linguistic cards in your groups
Answer the activity questions on your
- your individual language habits
Sociolect and Idiolect
Create an idiolect profile for a made-up character, using the questions on your activity sheet to help you
Make sure someone is prepared to speak with your new idiolect in the hot seat!
Does speaking differently mean speaking incorrectly?
The vocabulary and grammar associated with educated users of the language
One way of recording spontaneous speech is
to produce a
- a piece of written text
that attempts to replicate speech exactly.
Read the transcript and witness statement. In groups, answer the questions underneath
Look through the 'Features of Spontaneous Speech'. Can you spot any of these in the transcript?
Read the Jade Goody Transcript...
...and make some notes on the text, thinking about the following:
Can you identify some
How do you interpret the conversation?
What are the different roles of the two speakers?
How would you describe the lexis and grammar?
Look at the conventions for transcribing...
...and, working in pairs, record each other giving simple directions to college.
Produce a transcription of the recording, making it as accurate as possible.
What features do you think will be common in prepared speech?
Read the 'Features of
Prepared Speech' and see if
you can identify some
of them in the following
Martin Luther King speech.
Begin to consider possible clips for your coursework analysis. Remember, you are focusing on Spoken Language in the Media, which could include any of the following:
Today we will...
Explore the differences between spoken and written language
Define some basic linguistic frameworks
Discuss and analyse some examples of spoken language
Today we will...
Discuss socio-lingusitic issues
Explore our own Ianguage fingerprints - our Idiolect
Create an idiolect profile for a character
Today we will...
Explore the differences between Spontaneous and Prepared Speech
Analyse a transcript, identifying some basic conventions of spontaneous speech and transcribing
Word Classes and Register
Today we will...
Define different word classes
Identify word classes in a text
Explore texts in high and low register
are the names we give to people, places, objects, feelings, ideas etc.
There are two main types of noun;
Proper nouns usually begin with a capital letter, and refer to specific people and places.
Common nouns refer to types of people, places, objects, feelings etc, such as 'city', 'man', 'orange', 'excitement'. Most nouns are common nouns, and can be split into
These refer to things that exist physically - things that we can see and touch: 'computer', 'hand' 'tree' etc
These refer to things that do not exist physically, like feelings, ideas or qualities: 'friendship', 'sadness', 'democracy' etc
These refer to groups of people, animals or objects: 'team', 'family', 'flock'.
are describing words. They are used to describe nouns: 'the
Adjectives can be used to make comparisons. These are called
Comparative adjectives are usually formed by adding '-er' to the adjective: 'a
day than yesterday', 'a
Superlative adjectives are normally formed by adding '-est' to the adjective: 'the
day of the year', 'the
are often known as 'doing words', and many verbs do refer to physical actions: 'jump', 'take', 'give', 'explode' etc. Verbs that refer to physical actions are called
However, verbs can also refer to states, conditions or mental actions: 'She
you're very funny', 'That
unfair'. These types of verbs are called
Main and Auxiliary Verbs
in a sentence is the single verb that expresses the main meaning.
('helping verbs') are verbs placed in front of the main verb.
thought about you a lot'
want to see you'
are 'be', 'have' and 'do' because they can stand on their own:
Modal auxiliaries are only ever used with a main verb. They are:
describe verbs, just as adjectives describe nouns. They usually end in '-ly': 'she ran
', 'they left
are 'joining words'. They join together the different parts of a sentence: 'and', 'but', 'or', 'because', 'although' etc.
usually indicate in some way how one thing is related to something else. Examples include prepositions relating to position ('at', 'on', 'opposite'), direction ('into', 'past', 'to'), and time ('before', 'during', 'after').
These words precede nouns and refer directly to them. The most common determiners are 'the' (known as the
) and 'a/an' (known as the
- indicating possession of something
- these 'point' at something
are words that take the place of nouns...
'Wendy gave the address book to Steven'
'She', 'it' and 'him' are known as
. There are many types of pronoun...
show possession: 'This is
REMEMBER - it's only a pronoun if it replaces the noun. If it comes before the noun, it's a determiner: '
are pronouns that don't refer to specific people or things: 'someone', 'anything', 'nowhere'.
indicate that the object of a verb is the same as its subject: 'he congratulated
'. They are easily recognised because they end in '-self' or '-selves'
'point' towards something:
'I don't want
.' Again, it is only a pronoun if it replaces the noun. In the following example, 'that' is a determiner: 'I don't want
is another term for vocabulary
the different words you choose, or your lexical choices, are very important in achieving the right purpose and reaching the right audience. Adapting your lexis to certain situations or audiences is known as