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Introduction to Language

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Kate Balding

on 5 September 2013

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Transcript of Introduction to Language

Language
Introducing Spoken Language
Speech is one of the main '
modes
' of English Language
Mind-map some
differences
between spoken and
written language
Are there ever any overlaps between the two?
Consider the different purposes of speech and writing
Consider the different audiences of speech and writing
10 mins
Think about the different
examples you read/hear
every day - for example:
a conversation between friends
a newsreader on TV
a letter from the bank
a message on Facebook...etc etc!
Most of our speech is unplanned - we
make it up as we go along.This is called
Spontaneous speech.
In some situations, such as acting and
giving presentations, we have already
planned our speech ahead of time. This
is called
Prepared speech.
Entertainment is often scripted, which means the speech is prepared. In these next three clips, think about:

a) what the purpose of the prepared speech is

b) how this purpose is being achieved
`
The study of the part that language plays in social situations and social relationships

Pragmatics seeks to explore hidden or implicit meanings, as well as the values and attitudes expressed through writers' or speakers' use of language
Pragmatics
Lexis
Another term for vocabulary - the different variety of words used.
Semantics
The study of word meanings
Sociolect
A variety of language (or dialect) used by a particular social group
Group Work
Discuss the socio-linguistic cards in your groups
10 mins
In Pairs
Answer the activity questions on your
Idiolect
- your individual language habits
10 mins
Sociolect and Idiolect
Accent /Dialect?
In Groups
Create an idiolect profile for a made-up character, using the questions on your activity sheet to help you
Make sure someone is prepared to speak with your new idiolect in the hot seat!
Does speaking differently mean speaking incorrectly?
Standard English
The vocabulary and grammar associated with educated users of the language
Spontaneous Speech
One way of recording spontaneous speech is
to produce a
transcript
- a piece of written text
that attempts to replicate speech exactly.
15 mins
Read the transcript and witness statement. In groups, answer the questions underneath
10 mins
Look through the 'Features of Spontaneous Speech'. Can you spot any of these in the transcript?
10 mins
Read the Jade Goody Transcript...
...and make some notes on the text, thinking about the following:
Can you identify some
non-fluency
features?
How do you interpret the conversation?
What are the different roles of the two speakers?
How would you describe the lexis and grammar?
10 mins
Look at the conventions for transcribing...
...and, working in pairs, record each other giving simple directions to college.
Produce a transcription of the recording, making it as accurate as possible.
15 mins
Prepared Speech
What features do you think will be common in prepared speech?
Read the 'Features of
Prepared Speech' and see if
you can identify some
of them in the following
Martin Luther King speech.
Homework
Begin to consider possible clips for your coursework analysis. Remember, you are focusing on Spoken Language in the Media, which could include any of the following:
Commentaries
Interviews
TV/Radio Adverts
Chat shows
Film clips
Soap Operas
Stand-up acts
Phone-ins
Voice Overs
Today we will...
Explore the differences between spoken and written language
Define some basic linguistic frameworks
Discuss and analyse some examples of spoken language
Today we will...
Discuss socio-lingusitic issues
Explore our own Ianguage fingerprints - our Idiolect
Create an idiolect profile for a character
Today we will...
Explore the differences between Spontaneous and Prepared Speech
Analyse a transcript, identifying some basic conventions of spontaneous speech and transcribing
Word Classes and Register
Today we will...
Define different word classes
Identify word classes in a text
Define Lexis
Explore texts in high and low register
Nouns
'naming words'
Nouns
are the names we give to people, places, objects, feelings, ideas etc.

There are two main types of noun;
Proper
and
Common.
Proper nouns usually begin with a capital letter, and refer to specific people and places.
Common nouns refer to types of people, places, objects, feelings etc, such as 'city', 'man', 'orange', 'excitement'. Most nouns are common nouns, and can be split into
three categories:
Concrete Nouns
These refer to things that exist physically - things that we can see and touch: 'computer', 'hand' 'tree' etc
Abstract Nouns
These refer to things that do not exist physically, like feelings, ideas or qualities: 'friendship', 'sadness', 'democracy' etc
Collective Nouns
These refer to groups of people, animals or objects: 'team', 'family', 'flock'.
Adjectives
Adjectives

are describing words. They are used to describe nouns: 'the

flowers were
beautiful

', 'a

strange

feeling' etc
Adjectives can be used to make comparisons. These are called
Comparatives
and
Superlatives.
Comparatives
Comparative adjectives are usually formed by adding '-er' to the adjective: 'a
hotter
day than yesterday', 'a
bigger
town' etc.
Superlatives
Superlative adjectives are normally formed by adding '-est' to the adjective: 'the
hottest
day of the year', 'the
biggest
town' etc
Verbs
Verbs
are often known as 'doing words', and many verbs do refer to physical actions: 'jump', 'take', 'give', 'explode' etc. Verbs that refer to physical actions are called
dynamic verbs.
However, verbs can also refer to states, conditions or mental actions: 'She
felt
happy', 'I
think
you're very funny', 'That
seems
unfair'. These types of verbs are called
stative verbs.
Main and Auxiliary Verbs
The
main verb
in a sentence is the single verb that expresses the main meaning.
Auxiliary verbs
('helping verbs') are verbs placed in front of the main verb.
For example...
'I
have
thought about you a lot'
'I
do
want to see you'
Test!
The
primary auxiliaries
are 'be', 'have' and 'do' because they can stand on their own:
'You
are
beautiful'
'He
did
it'
Modal auxiliaries are only ever used with a main verb. They are:
'can'
'will'
'shall'
'may'
'must'
'could'
'would'
'should'
'might'
Test!
Adverbs
Adverbs
describe verbs, just as adjectives describe nouns. They usually end in '-ly': 'she ran
quickly
', 'they left
immediately
'.
Nouns
Conjunctions
Conjunctions
are 'joining words'. They join together the different parts of a sentence: 'and', 'but', 'or', 'because', 'although' etc.
Prepositions
Prepositions
usually indicate in some way how one thing is related to something else. Examples include prepositions relating to position ('at', 'on', 'opposite'), direction ('into', 'past', 'to'), and time ('before', 'during', 'after').
Test!
Determiners
These words precede nouns and refer directly to them. The most common determiners are 'the' (known as the
definite article
) and 'a/an' (known as the
indefinite article
)
More Determiners...
Possessive Determiners
- indicating possession of something
'
my
dog'
'
his
wallet'
Demonstrative Determiners
- these 'point' at something
'get on
that
train'
'Please take
this
money'
Pronouns
Pronouns
are words that take the place of nouns...
'Wendy gave the address book to Steven'
She
it
gave
to
him
'She', 'it' and 'him' are known as
personal pronouns
. There are many types of pronoun...
Possessive pronouns
show possession: 'This is

hers
'.
REMEMBER - it's only a pronoun if it replaces the noun. If it comes before the noun, it's a determiner: '
Her
purse'.
Indefinite pronouns
are pronouns that don't refer to specific people or things: 'someone', 'anything', 'nowhere'.
Reflexive pronouns
indicate that the object of a verb is the same as its subject: 'he congratulated
himself
'. They are easily recognised because they end in '-self' or '-selves'
Demonstrative pronouns
'point' towards something:
'I don't want
that
.' Again, it is only a pronoun if it replaces the noun. In the following example, 'that' is a determiner: 'I don't want
that
ice-cream.'
Test!
Lexis
is another term for vocabulary
the different words you choose, or your lexical choices, are very important in achieving the right purpose and reaching the right audience. Adapting your lexis to certain situations or audiences is known as
register
.
The Barney
Full transcript