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Wind Power

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John Michael Guiao

on 25 April 2011

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Transcript of Wind Power

Wind Power Thesis Statement In today's World Market, gas prices have sky rocketed up to $4.53.
Since the island of Guam is normally windy day-to-day, we
suggest the implementation of wind turbines on Guam so that
we can generate electricity without the use of fossil fuels, which
would also benefit our environment. Conclusion History One of the first natural energy sources used in history Behind Wind Technology: Energy production from wind turbines cannot be accomplished unless there is wind delivered to the turbine at a certain speed.

Wind results from the unequal heating of the earth by the sun. The power in the wind depends on the area considered and on the cube of the wind velocity (remember: PT = ½ pAv3). Wind Technology: Wind technology is relatively straightforward in that there are blades, gearing, a generator, a tower, and controls. Wind pressure turns a rotor made of blades, and this rotor is attached to a shaft which is connected through various gears to an electrical generator.
Advantages Relatively low start- up and maintenance costs Disadvantages/ Dangers Location is a factor because wind is sometimes not continous. - some areas have high, strong winds - some areas have little or no wind - need to find a happy medium- not so strong that they blow over and not so weak that they do not turn the blades Lack of aesthetic appeal - people of Nantucket Sound in Cape May have been fighting against the installation of an offshore wind farm due to the “visual pollution” Danger to bats and migratory birds Dangers to Humans Noise Strobing - light flashes caused by the turbines passing in front of the sun’s rays Ice pieces may be flung off the turbine blades. Majority of turbines have an automatic shut off when a certain amount of ice has been formed. Costs The Jersey-Atlantic Wind Farm located in Atlantic City, New Jersey has five turbines that power the Atlantic County Utilities Authority (ACUA) wastewater treatment plant, 2,500 homes, and still has leftover energy that is sent to the grid
- COST = $12 million Is it possible to convert 100 percent%?
In order for us to convert more to wind power we need to create offshore turbines that are: larger
more efficient
utility-scale In conclusion, Guam should implement the use of off-shore wind turbines, instead of fossil fuels, as an energy source because wind turbines can lower power cost, reduce pollution, and make a good source of energy. By: John Michael Guiao and Maria Garcia
2nd Period
Physics Honors
The modern wind era in the U.S. began after the energy crisis of 1973 with the installation of wind farms in California in the early 1980’s. From 2000-1700 BC, windmills were used in Babylon and China to pump water and grind grain. Introduced to Europe in the 12th century and quickly became popular. Holland had approximately 8,000 windmills and England had around 10,000 by 1750. There was a decline in the 18th century because the Watt’s steam engine was introduced. Further declines resulted during the 20th century as the availability of fossil fuels and hydropower increased. Wind Power

where Power is given in Watts (i.e. joules/second), the Swept area in square metres, the Air density in kilograms per cubic metre, and the Velocity in metres per second. Wind is made up of moving air molecules which have mass - though not a lot. Any moving object with mass carries kinetic energy in an amount which is given by the equation: Kinetic Energy = 0.5 x Mass x Velocity where the mass is measured in kg, the velocity in m/s, and the energy is given in joules. Air has a known density (around 1.23 kg/m at sea level), so the mass of air hitting our wind turbine (which sweeps a known area) each second is given by the following equation: Mass/sec (kg/s) = Velocity (m/s) x Area (m ) x Density (kg/m )

And therefore, the power (i.e. energy per second) in the wind hitting a wind turbine with a certain swept area is given by simply inserting the mass per second calculation into the standard kinetic energy equation given above resulting in the following vital equation: Power = 0.5 x Swept Area x Air Density x Velocity ReaL World Wind Power Calculation The world's largest wind turbine generator has a rotor blade diameter of 126 metres and so the rotors sweep an area of PI x (diameter/2)2 = 12470 m ! As this is an offshore wind turbine, we know it is situated at sea-level and so we know the air density is 1.23 kg/m . The turbine is rated at 5MW in 30mph (14m/s) winds, and so putting in the known values we get: Wind Power = 0.5 x 12,470 x 1.23 x (14 x 14 x 14) ...which gives us a wind power of around 21,000,000 Watts. Why is the power of the wind (21MW) so much larger than the rated power of the turbine generator (5MW)? Because of the Betz Limit, and inefficiencies in the system. Renewable and free to access (unlike coal, natural gas, or oil) Turbines create zero emissions, so no: regional haze, acidic precipitation, mercury contamination, smog No use of water
- irrigation and thermal electric generation consume 77% of the world's fresh water supply Incentives- farmers in the Midwest of US can receive $3,000 to $10,000 per turbine for a land lease (turbines are placed on their land and farmers or grazers can still use the land to graze cattle or plant crops) Bibliography ACUA: Atlantic County Facilities (2005). Jersey-Atlantic wind farm fact sheet. Retrieved fromhttp://www.acua.com/acua/content.aspx?id=492ekmensel=c580fa7b_20_88_btnlink
Archer, Cristina L.; Mark Z. Jacobson (2005). "Evaluation of global wind power". http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/winds/global_winds.html.
Belson, Ken. Retrieved from http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/10/03/new-jersey-approves-offshore-wind-farm
Bullis, Kevin. Retrieved from http://www.technologyreview.com/energy/21737/?a=f
Conners, S.R. McGowan, J.R. (2000).Wind power: A Turn of the Century Review. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, Vol. 25, pps 147-197.
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EERE. U.S. Department of Energy, (2005). Wind powering America fact sheet series (DOE/GO-102005-2123).
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Makofske, William. (2001). Supplementary Handouts for ENST 223: Wind Power Information. Ramapo College of New Jersey.
Miller, Linda. (2006, June 28). Investing in Wind Energy: Socially Responsible and Fiscally Wise. Business and Finance. Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/39762/investing_in_wind_energy.html?cat=3
NREL Team. (2010, January 5). Wind research. Retrieved from http://www.nrel.gov/wind/
Pasqualetti, Matin, J. (2004). Wind power: Obstacles and Opportunities. Environment, 46(7), pps 22-38. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=48hid=8sid=812a0e17-945e-4a90-a5e5-e4579b5a4ec040sessionmgr4
Ritter, John, . (2005, January 4). Wind turbines taking toll on birds of prey. USA Today.
Sangrillo, Mick. (2003). Putting wind power's effect on birds in perspective. Retrieved from http://www.awea.org/faq/sagrillo/swbirds.html
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Sovacool, Benjamin K. (2008, November 2). How much will Nuclear power plants cost?. Scitizen: You bring science closer to society. Retrieved from http://scitizen.com/future-energies/how-much-will-new-nuclear-power-plants-cost-_a-14-2287.html
Stone, Jerry James. Retrieved from http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/02/norway_to_build_worlds_most_powerful_offshore_wind_turbine.php
Tankersly, Jim. http://articles.latimes.com/2009/apr/03/nation/na-energy3
WWEA (2009). "World Wind Energy Report 2008." World Wind Energy Association WWEA: 1-16. Retrieved from www.wwindea.org
http://www.eia.doe.gov/state/territory-energy-profiles-analysis.cfm?sid=GQ Doubling the velocity yields 8 times more power and energy (23= 8). Wind speeds typically increase with height as well.

To maximize power and energy outputs, careful attention must be given to placement and tower height. Wind turbines are classified by the orientation of the rotor shaft; there are horizontal axis and vertical axis machines. Florida Power & Light informed the Florida Public Service Commission in December 2007 building two new nuclear units at Turkey Point in South Florida was
- COST = $ 8,000 per installed kW….. $24 billion Wind vs. natural gas and coal (production costs per megawatt hour)
- Natural gas- $65
- Coal- $55
- Wind- $45 Wind power is much more economically viable with the lowest start up and maintenance costs when compared to then any other energy source, renewable or nonrenewable Top Wind Markets Winds blow constantly Can bring down costs Island in Denmark attempting to convert
2 2 3 3 3 2 3 Island in Denmark attempting Thanet Wind Farm
Location: 7 miles off the coast of Thanet district, Kent, England
Maximum Capacity: 300 MW
Cost: $1.2 Billion
Water depth: 20-25 meters Guam:
Electric Load: 280 MW
Petroleum power plants
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