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The Restoration and the 18th Century

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Adarsh Rao

on 23 October 2013

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Transcript of The Restoration and the 18th Century

The Restoration and the 18th Century
During the Restoration and the 18th Century, music hit a transition from the Baroque Era to the Classical Era. Music from the Baroque Era focused more on the embellishment and complexity of music. Compostions such as Bach's Toccata and Fugue in D minor and Handel's Messiah, denote the decoration of Baroque music. These ornamented pieces usually reflected the power of monarchs. Contrastingly, most music from the Classical Era was less complicated and predictable. This music was very logical and straightforward. Pieces such Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik show the repetitiveness of Classical music and its predictability. The Classical Era also had many secular compositions and compostitions with more expression.

Works Cited
Bashō’s poems make haiku poetry popular (Japan)
The Rape of the Lock
Alexander Pope publishes part of The Rape of the Lock, a satire of English high-society
Robinson Crusoe
Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe, a fictional account of the adventures of a shipwrecked man
Gulliver’s Travels
Jonathan Swift publishes Gulliver's Travels, a satire of human nature.
Samuel Pepys begins his diary
Pepys' diary serves as one of the most important primary sources from the time period, it contains first-hand accounts of the Great Plague of London, the Second Dutch War, and the Great Fire of London, as well as record of Pepys personal affairs
The Pilgrim’s Progress
John Bunyan publishes The Pilgirm's Progress, a Christian allegory
Head of a Man Wearing a Turban
Frye's work went beyond mere portraiture and probed the
of the subjects
The Honorable Henry Fane with His Guardians, Inigo Jones and Charles Blair
Sir Joshua Reynolds
- Oil on Canvas

Portrait of a Woman, Her Head Turned to the Right, Wearing an Earring
Joseph Wright of Derby
- Pastel on blue laid paper

An Academy by Lamplight
William Pether
, after Joseph Wright - Mezzotint
Pether emulated the
subtle range of tones
that Wright was known for. He used soft velvety darks against highlights to create a luminous look

The Concert: From a set of Indo-Chinese Scenes
John Vanderbank
- Wool and Silk
Vanderbank created tapestries designed in the “Indian Manner” for Queen Mary.
South Sea Scheme
William Hogarth
- Engraving
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was one of Mozart's well-known pieces. It is an excellent example of a Classical Era composition. It's repetitiveness makes the music very predictable and straightforward.
French Revolution begins
Ideas of innovation extend to politics as well, as shown by the various revolutions that occurred in this time period. People who were discontent with government or policies were encouraged to speak out and tell people their opinion. This idea of self-expression led to the proliferation of intellectual prose forms such as the essay.
George Fredric Handel debuted his oratorio Messiah first in Dublin, April 13, 1742. The composition introduced a technique called text painting, where the musical notes reflect the lyrics. This piece was an ornamented piece that was meant to be a scriptural anthology set to music.
England, Wales, and Scotland are politically unified as Great Britain
Many of these Enlightenment thinkers emphasized cooperation to learn about the world around them; the political influence of these thinkers may have spurred the unification of England, Wales, and Scotland.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu introduces inoculation against smallpox, originally a Turkish practice
Cooperation was also present in the arts and sciences, evidenced by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu introducing the Turkish practice of inoculation against disease (in this case, smallpox).
Benjamin Franklin invents lightning rod
Invention and innovation was also rampant; Benjamin Franklin, another primary Enlightenment thinker, invented everything from lightning rods to bifocal glasses.
Glorious Revolution in which King James II is overthrown by Parliament and replaced with Protestant monarchs William and Mary
Once Charles II proved himself an incompetent and near-tyrannical ruler, faith in the monarchy began to fade. Led by Parliament and allied with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), the British people overthrew Charles II and installed his daughter, Mary, and William in the monarchy. This event, known as the Glorious Revolution, marked the beginning of Britain’s entrance into the Enlightenment period. This time period had values reminiscent of the Renaissance—people focused on observing the world around them and learning about the arts and sciences. There was an emphasis on logic and making rational and beneficial decisions; much of the literature published in this period emphasized the right course of action, human nature, and being an educated citizen.
John Locke publishes An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
One of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers, John Locke, published An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, which described the foundation of human nature. Locke describes the mind as a blank slate at birth, with it being “written on” via experiences later in life. Locke’s ideas in this essay formed the basis of empiricism and influenced many other influential Enlightenment philosophers.
King James II tries to re-establish Catholic Church
Ends in failure and promotes even more hostility towards Catholicism
Charles II crowned king of England
The Restoration describes the restoration of the English monarchy; specifically, the installment of Charles II as the king of England. The people of the Restoration expressed deep faith in the monarchy after Richard Cromwell’s failed attempt at British legislature.
Social Reforms
Progressive thinkers made much social progress as well during this period. The ideas of politeness and social norms developed greatly during this time, and many advances in women’s rights especially were made. Women were allowed to play female roles in plays, writers such as Mary Astell began to advocate for better education for women, and women began to publish literature widely.
Plague in London kills over 68,000 people
Great Fire, also in London
Newton publishes Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
George III crowned king of England; becomes the king who lost the American Colonies
Voltaire publishes Candide, a satire against optimism (France)
Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral
Phillis Wheatley publishes Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, Wheatley was the first African-American woman to have her writings published (London)
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, one of the first great feminist publications
Lyrical Ballads
William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge publish the Lyrical Ballads, marks the begining of the Romantic movement
A Modest Proposal
Jonathan Swift publishes A Modest Proposal, a satire suggesting that babies be sold to the rich as food, written to protest English treatment of Irish poor
Dictionary of the English Language
Samuel Johnson publishes his Dictionary of the English Language
Parliament passes Stamp Act to tax American Colonies
Two Boys Blowing a Bladder by Candle-light
Peter Perez Burdett
, after Joseph Wright - Aquatint printed in red and brown inks

Captain George K. H. Coussmaker
Sir Joshua Reynolds
- Oil on canvas
Dark Prison (“Carcere Oscura”), after Piranesi
J.M.W Turner
- Watercolor over graphite

Elizabeth Farren, Later Countess of Derby
Sir Thomas Lawrence
- Oil on Canvas

Boston Tea Party
American Revolution begins
British crush Irish nationalist rebellion led by Theobald Wolfe Tone
Napoleon begins his ascent to power as the French emperor
Factual Sources:
Probst, Robert E. "The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century." Elements of Literature. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, 2000. 407-516. Print.

"The Restoration and 18th Century." Volume C:. W.W. Norton and Company, Inc, n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

Yadav, Alok. "Historical Outline of Restoration & 18th-C British Literature." Historical Outline of Restoration &
18th-C British Literature. George Mason University, 18 July 2010. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.


Thomas Frye
- Mezzotint
Two Boys by Candlelight, Blowing a Bladder
Joseph Wright
- Oil on Canvas

commentary on South Sea Bubble; highlighted lack of morals
Factual Sources:
“British and American Grand Manner Portraits of the 1700s.” National Gallery of Art. National Gallery of Art,
Washington, 2013. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.

“British Art in the 18th Century.” WGA. Web Gallery of Art, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013

“Great Britain and Ireland, 1600-1800 A.D.” in Heilbrunn TImeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan
Museum of Art, 2000--. Web. 16 Oct. 2013

Probst, Robert E. "The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century." Elements of Literature. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, 2000. 407-516. Print.

"Sir Joshua Reynolds." The National Gallery, London: Western European Painting 1250–1900. The National Gallery,
n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

An example of
Grand Manner
art - uses idealized style based on classical art. British artists used the term to describe paintings that used
to confer a sense of
on the subject
Lawrence was another famous portrait artist who was appointed to Reynolds' position as a result of this piece
This work was one of the
in 19th century British art
Reynolds was the most famous artist in England during this time and was chief painter for KIng George III. This was an example of a
conversation piece
– a piece that portrayed friends and relatives enjoying a leisurely activity.
This genre of portraiture originated from 17th-century Dutch and French works.
Joseph Wright was known for his oil portraits and for his mastery of chalks and pastels. In this work, the open-necked gown, turned head, and downward gaze of the subject indicates that this is an
l work rather than a commissioned portrait
Principles of Art
During the Restoration and 18th century, there was belief in power of the
, and
human reason
was valued over prescribed doctrines. There was much foreign artistic influence during this age, but a distinctly British style began to form.
Art began to focus more on the middle class and transitioned from formal portraiture to works with
more creative freedom
. In addition, some
works that challenged political corruption began to appear.
However, there remained a sense of
nobility and refinement
in much of the artwork. Many artists still tended to imitate the works of other artists rather than experiment with new techniques, which highlighted the preference for

during this time period.
Factual Sources:
Anderson, Robert. "The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century 1660-1800." Elements of Literature: Sixth Course. Austin, TX:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1989. 407-516. Print.

"Magdalene College, Cambridge - Samuel Pepys." Samuel Pepys. University of Cambridge, n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

"The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The 18th Century: Introduction." The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The
18th Century: Introduction. W. W. Norton and Company, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.

"The Restoration and 18th Century." Volume C:. W.W. Norton and Company, Inc, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.

Yadav, Alok. "Historical Outline of Restoration & 18th-C British Literature." Historical Outline of Restoration & 18th-C British
Literature. N.p., 18 July 2010. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.


During the Restoration and the Eighteenth Century, order, decorum, and clarity were highly valued both in life and in literature. As the Restoration began there was a great emphasis on decorum, as can be seen in works such as The Pilgrim’s Progress, which emphasizes morality and Christianity. Then, at the start of the Eighteenth Century there was a rise in satire, which most often criticized the immoral and idealistic practices in England. Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope were especially influential satirists, focusing on human nature, English treatment of the poor, and the life-style of the English upper-class. Many authors of the time turned to “neoclassicism”, in which they attempted to recapture the structure of classic literature while using highly visual diction. Furthermore, the world of literature opened up to many new groups including women and African-Americans as can be seen through Phillis Wheatley’s Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral and Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Poetry as well was written and published by all during England’s “Augustan Age,” occurring toward the end of the Eighteenth Century. This poetry was characterized by a focus on human nature and was classified into “high” and “low” verse depending on the class of the person who wrote it.
Principles of Literature

Toccata and Fugue in D minor
Toccata and Fugue written by Johann Sebastian Bach was created for the sole purpose of showing off his keyboard virtuosity. This affected the way European composers wrote music in the Baroque era. Music leaned more towards embellishment rather than simplicity.
Canon in D
Johann Pachelbel's Canon in D was a chorale
written for three violins. Although this piece
was written in the mid-Baroque Era, it is
predictable and repetitive, both of which are
characteristics of a classical time period
Factual Sources:
"Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (work by Mozart)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.

"Handel's Messiah - HWV 56 (1741)." About.com Classical Music. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.

"Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." The Piano: The Pianofortes of Bartolomeo Cristofori (16551731). N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2013.

Kuenning, Geoff. "Bach/Stokowski: Toccata and Fugue in D Minor." Bach/Stokowski: Toccata and Fugue in D Minor. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.

Probst, Robert E. "The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century." Elements of Literature. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2000. 407-516. Print.

"The Baroque Era." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

"The World's Leading Classical Music Group." History of Classical Music. Naxos Digital Services, 2013. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.


Invention of the Piano
Bartolomeo Cristofori had invented the piano in 1700. The piano gave way to the different styles of music that would come about in the Classical Era. The piano also became one of the primary instrumets of the Classical Era.

William Croft
William Croft was a well-known English composer and organist. He performed many Cathedral music pieces. In 1715 he wrote works for the coronation of King George I. He also composed works for the funeral of Queen Anne in the preceeding year.
Symphony No. 94 ("Surprise")
Franz Joseph Haydn was a very influencial composer of this his time. He was known as the father of Symphony and String Quartet due to his numerous amount of symphonies and string quartets. The "Surprise" Symphony was unique in its sense of unpredictably changing from quiet to a sudden loud chord.
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