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Chemistry Unit

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by

Jesse Lehnen

on 15 October 2012

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Transcript of Chemistry Unit

Water What is the only naturally occurring substance found as a solid liquid and gas? Question Occurs only at high temperatures
Most common state of matter in the universe:
Stars (including the sun)
Lighting bolts Plasma Particles of a gas . . .
Move freely and independently of each other
Fill the entire container they are in Gas Particles of a liquid . . .
Can move around
Can change positions
Fit the shape of the container they are held in Liquid Particles of a solid
Are in fixed positions
Vibrate
Can not switch positions Solid Four different states: States of matter
A substance made out of only one molecule Vocabulary Mixture Atoms bind together using chemical bonds How do atoms stay together? Compound
A combination of 2 or more different elements Ions
Atoms that have lost or gained electrons
+ or – charge Vocabulary Lithium (Li) Atom
Atomic #:
Atomic Mass:
How many:
Protons:
Neutrons:
Electrons: Atom Making What is an isotope?

Complete this table in your notes: Warm Up Radiocarbon dating – Carbon-14
Medical uses – bone imaging
Smoke detectors - Americium-241
Food irradiation – Cobalt -60 Why should I care about isotopes? An element with the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons Isotopes Example: Arsenic Properties:
Have properties of both metals and nonmetals Metalloids Example: Sulfur Properties:
Rarely have metallic luster
Usually gases
Not malleable or ductile
Poor conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals Properties:
Same properties as metals

PLUS:

Electrons distributed in a unique way Transition Metals Example: Lead Ductile
can be drawn into thin sheets or wires without breaking
Good conductors of heat and electricity Metals continued… Over 75% of elements
Properties
Metallic shine or luster.
Usually solids at room temperature.
Malleable
can be hammered, pounded, or pressed into different shapes without breaking Metals Find the following information for Potassium
Symbol
Atomic Number
Atomic Mass
Number of Protons
Number of Electrons
Number of Neutrons Warm Up A list of all elements
Elements with similar properties are grouped together The periodic table Periodic Table There are over 90 different elements No, there are many different types based on how many protons and electrons it has Are all atoms the same? Nucleus Structure of an atom Parts of an atom: Neutrons and protons are about the same size Define matter Warm Up Protons
Particles with a positive charge
+ Parts of an atom: (Atomic Particles) NO!!! Can we see atoms? The smallest building blocks of matter

It can not be broken down further without changing its characteristics Atoms
What are the smallest building blocks of this table?

Atoms Building Blocks What are the building blocks of a living organism? Atoms What is matter made of? Does air take up space? We must answer these questions: Is air matter? Matter is . . .
anything that has mass and takes up space.

Examples: What is matter? Matter Chemistry Chapter Is this atom
an isotope? An ion?

28 protons
31 neutrons
28 electrons Warm Up Molecule
Group of two or more atoms
May be the same or different Example: Gold Nucleus
Contains the protons and neutron Structure of an atom Developed by Dmitri Mendeleev
A Russian Chemist
Born2-8-1834
Died 2-2-1907 Solution: The need for organization: Chemistry Does air have mass? 50 Trillion Cells in Human Body 100 Trillion atoms in a Human Cell + - 0 Electrons
Particles with a negative charge
- Neutrons
Particles with no charge
neutral Cells Cheeseburger Football Light Pineapple Your desk Electricity Heat Your pet Squirrel Are these matter? Electrons are smaller than neutrons and protons In a normal state:
# of protons = # of electrons = approximate # of neutrons Elements Substance made of only one type of atom The Elements Song The Periodic Table Pure Substance Is the atomic mass the same? Examples:
H2O
NaCl
C6H12O6 Examples:
O2
CO2 Do not combine chemically When compounds or elements mix together Can be separated mechanically Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids have a definite shape and volume If we add energy to a solid we get . . . .
If we add energy to a liquid we get . . . . If you add energy to a gas we get . . .
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