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Habits of Mind

Implications for teaching and learning

Jen Hyatt

on 9 May 2013

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Transcript of Habits of Mind

Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn Habits of Mind Habits of Mind are the “ways in which students think as they learn” (Ravitch, 110).

They are also known as “dispositions” or “inclinations to approach learning and problem-solving situations in a particular way…they encompass motivation and personality characteristics” and are “important factors affecting learning motivation and achievement” (Ormrod, 472-3).

You might also hear them referred to as "noncognitive" skills, "character" skills, or "soft" skills. What are Habits of Mind? The theory of Habits of Mind was first popularized by Theodore Sizer and by Deborah Meier in the 1980’s. Origins of Theory “The school should focus on helping young people learn to use their minds well. Habits of mind and heart are ways that a school can articulate the thinking and emotional dispositions that students need, allowing it to focus its resources. Consequently, schools should not be “comprehensive” if such a claim is made at the expense of the school’s central intellectual purpose. Habits of mind are a set of thinking dispositions that help people develop their critical and creative thinking skills. They are the characteristics of what intelligent people do about problems whose resolution is not immediately apparent…
  Coalition of Essential Schools Sizer wrote about 8 Habits of Mind and framed his Coalition of Essential Schools around the framework that schools should explicitly teach these Habits of Mind:

perspective imagination
empathy communication
analysis commitment
humility joy Ted Sizer “The school should focus on helping young people learn to use their minds well. Habits of mind and heart are ways that a school can articulate the thinking and emotional dispositions that students need, allowing it to focus its resources...

Habits of mind are a set of thinking dispositions that help people develop their critical and creative thinking skills. They are the characteristics of what intelligent people do about problems whose resolution is not immediately apparent…
  Coalition of Essential Schools …That is, these are the mental habits individuals can develop to render their thinking and learning more self-regulated. The habits of mind are not designed to be thinking tools, rather they are designed to be dispositions adopted when using a thinking tool.

Habits of heart are a collection of emotional dispositions designed to help people develop their social-emotional intelligence. Habits of heart help people care for, identify with, and honor others, and respect the emotions and rights of others and how they see the world. The phrase also describes an ability, capacity, or skill to perceive, assess, and manage one’s own emotions and those of other individuals and groups.” http://www.essentialschools.org/benchmarks/5 Like Sizer, Meier encourages teachers to train students in Habits of Mind. She is a proponent of routinely asking a series of 5 questions in our classrooms. She asserts that course content should be the vehicle for Habits of Mind.

How do we know what we know?
Who’s speaking?
What causes what?
How might things have been different?
Who cares? Deb Meier Deb Meier explains how subject matter is the vehicle for Habits of Mind
To direct attention to how students learn to think. What is the purpose of Habits of Mind? Arthur L. Costa explains that in school, at work, and in life, students must “persist when faced with adversity, solve cognitively complex problems, draw on vast reservoirs of knowledge, and work collaboratively.”

If you have ever experienced students blurting out answers, depending on you for answers, giving up on difficult tasks, unable to work in groups, unable to apply their knowledge, or afraid to take risks, you have directly seen why this is important (Costa, Thought-Filled Curriculum, 20). Why is this important? Arthur L. Costa, building on the research of Robert Sternberg, David Perkins, Reuven Feuerstein, Alan Glatthorn, Jonathan Baron, and others, studied the attributes of intelligent, successful problem solvers in many walks of life.

With colleague Bena Kallick, he identified 16 Habits of Mind that lead to improved student achievement. In their research, many students trained in Habits of Mind later attained "gifted" status. Costa’s research
1. persisting;
2. thinking and communicating with clarity and precision;
3. managing impulsivity;
4. gathering data through all senses;
5. listening with understanding and empathy;
6. creating, imagining, and innovating;
7. thinking flexibly; The 16 Habits of Mind (Costa and Kallick) 8. responding with wonderment and awe;
9. thinking about thinking (metacognition);
10. taking responsible risks;
11. striving for accuracy;
12. finding humor;
13. questioning and posing problems;
14. thinking interdependently;
15. applying past knowledge to new situations; and
16. remaining open to continuous learning. The 16 ctd. Arthur Costa defines Habits of Mind At Stanford, psychologist Carol Dweck similarly explored this concept as that of a “growth mind-set.” If students have a growth mindset (employ Habits of Mind), they care about learning. When they make a mistake or exhibit a deficiency, they correct it. For them, effort is a positive thing: It ignites their intelligence and causes it to grow.
“In the face of failure, these students escalate their efforts and look for new learning strategies.” (Dweck, 35).

Dweck, Costa and Kallick all discovered that students who were taught about Habits of Mind/dispositions saw marked growth and success. Carol Dweck Carol Dweck explains 1. If skillful thinking can be cultivated and thinking skills made explicit, should our students be taught about Habits of Mind and regularly assessed for them?

2. How can we as a school “tax the imagination and stimulate inquiry" (Costa)? Invite students to assess their own learning? Have students question their own and others’ assumptions? Value students’ viewpoints? Implications and Applications for Curriculum 3. How do we create pedagogical practices that help students construct both their own and shared knowledge? Invite the individual to influence the group’s thinking and the group to influence the individual’s thinking?

4. How do we get students to self-reflect on their own metacognition? To share their thinking as they monitor their progress, evaluate their strategies, and generate alternative strategies? How do we as teachers model the Habits of Mind? Implications and Applications for Curriculum TONY WAGNER'S 7 SURVIVAL SKILLS: Habits of Work According to Arthur Costa's research, Habits of Mind
improve schools because:

1) they provide an agreed-upon set of attributes and
characteristics of the graduates of the school;

2) they apply to all disciplines and are basic to all content areas;

3) they provide a common terminology;

4) they allow faculty to use the Habits of Mind to converse about or diagnose individual students’ needs and plan accordingly;

5) they are beneficial to the adults as well as to the students since Habits of Mind means life-long learning (273). Impact on the School Community Deb Meier writes, “we need citizens who have a healthy respect for skepticism and a penchant for empathy… we need citizens who feel connected to their community, who agree and disagree civilly…who persevere in the face of difficulty…who are self-confidently engaged with life… these habits must be practiced from the heart if they are to stick; they must be applied to matters of importance to young people in the company of older people who teach them in real contexts” (18). “The Power of Ideas” PAUL TOUGH: How Children Succeed Costa, Arthur L. “The Thought Filled Curriculum.” Educational Leadership, Volume 65, Number 5, February 2008, pp. 20-24.

Costa, Arthur and Kallick, Bena. Learning and Leading with Habits of Mind: 16 Essential Characteristics for Success. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2008.

Diaz-Maggioli. Teacher-Centered Professional Development. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2004.

Dweck, Carol. “The Perils and Promises of Praise.” Educational Leadership, Volume 65, Number 2, October 2007, pp. 34-39. References Meier, Deborah. “Becoming Educated: The Power of Ideas.” Principal Leadership, Volume 3, Number 7, 2003, pp. 16-19.

Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis. Human Learning, Fifth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2008.

Ravitch, Diane. EdSpeak: A Glossary of Education Terms, Phrases, Buzzwords and Jargon. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2007.

Richards, Susannah. “The Last Word: An Interview with Arthur L. Costa.” Journal of Advanced Academics, Volume 18, Number 2, Winter 2008, pp. 313-327.

Tough, Paul, How Children Succeed. NY: Houghton Mifflin, 2012. References Bena Kallick elaborates Who do we want BBA students to be? How do we measure our core values? What does this mean for instruction?
Grading and assessment?
Graduation requirements? What does "a mindset of perseverance" look like in practice? Which habits of mind,
heart, or work do we
value? Angela Duckworth Like Carol Dweck, psychologist Duckworth's research at UPenn on "grit" presents convincing evidence that it is not necessarily intelligence that leads to success; rather, it is perseverance, self-control, and non-cognitive skills (character, soft skills, habits of mind, etc.) . Tough's book explores how non-cognitive skills like persistence, self-control, curiosity, conscientiousness, grit, & self-confidence are more crucial than brainpower for achieving success, and he argues that character is created by encountering and overcoming failure. He grounds his findings in educational research and neuroscience. This raises all kinds of questions for us: Mission Hill School, Boston Habits of Mind in Action "Higher Standards of Rigor" & the need to make mistakes BBA Mountain Campus Change Agency Assessment https://docs.google.com/a/burrburton.org/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0ArB9WT5D0f0xdEtWYjdObDJSbHpBaEhQWUQ0MDMzMXc#gid=0 stewardship
initiative & engagement
confidence and humility
leadership and followership http://www.ted.com/talks/angela_lee_duckworth_the_key_to_success_grit.html
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