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Asexual & Sexual Reproduction

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Shayne Orellano

on 10 January 2014

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Transcript of Asexual & Sexual Reproduction

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction By: Camille Tabacla & Shayne Orellano 9-5 Sexual Reproduction: • Involves two individuals. Most species if animals and flowering plants sexually. The offspring if sexual reproduction will have a mix of the characteristics of both individuals, ensuring that there is always a mix of characteristics in each generation. Sexual Reproductions in Animals? Animals reproduce asexually or sexually. Sexual reproduction requires the union of sex cells known as gametes. Gametes are created through a process known as meiosis. In meiosis cell division produces cells with half the number of chromosomes of the original cell (haploid). During fertilization two haploid gametes join together thus forming a zygote. The zygote has complete chromosomes and is the first cell of the new organism. Sexual reproduction ensures genetic uniqueness Gametes: Sexual Reproduction in plants and/or animals relies on the union of two specialized cells known as gametes A gamete is a cell that has one role only, which is to join with another gamete during reproduction. Sperm Cells & Egg Cells (ova): Sexual reproduction involves specialized cells known as gametes (sex cells). The male gametes are called sperm cells, and the female gametes are known as egg cells (ova). Fertilization: the union of the sperm cell with the egg cell occurs during mating Zygote: The cell created by the joining of the two gametes First cell of a new individual. Then divides into two cells. Cleavage: • the same divisions are repeated (like zygote) during a process called cleavage Embryo: Continued cell division results in a new multicellular life form  Depending on the species, the development of the embryo may occur inside the female parent, which happens in most mammals, or outside, in an egg, which happens in most other types of animals. The new individual will show some of the characteristics of its female parent and some of its male parent. Asexual Reproduction: Involves only one parent. All the offspring resulted from asexual reproduction are identical to that one parent. Several forms of asexual reproduction are Binary Fission, Budding, Spore Reproduction, and Vegative Reproduction. Binary Fission: When a cell splits exactly in two, producing two identical individuals. Examples include: some bacteria, some amoebas and algae (one celled organisms) The parent produces a small bud, or a smaller version of itself. Budding: One individual will produce many spores, and each spore can develop into a new individual identical to the parent. Spore Production: Spores are produced by the division of cells of the parent, not by the union of two cells. Vegative Reproduction: the reproduction of a plant that doesn't involve a formation of a seed. There are different types of vegative reproduction. Such as: Cutting, Runners, Tubers, Bulbs, and Suckers. Cutting: Tubers: Runners: Bulbs: Suckers: Although the new individual may resemble one
parent more than the other, t will not be identical to either parent. Advantages and Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction: A great advantage of asexual reproduction is that asexual reproduction can produce a lot of individuals very quickly. A disadvantage is that if conditions become unfavorable, the entire population may be wiped out. Advantages of Sexual Reprodcution Has the advantage of providing lots of variation, which helps species survive environmental change. Asexual Reproduction: Involves only one parent. All the offspring that result from asexual reproduction are identical to the parent and inherit all their characteristics. There are several forms of asexual reproduction such as: Binary Fission, Budding, Spore Production and Vegetative Reproduction. Binary Fission: Only one-celled organisms like bacteria reproduce using this process (binary fission). During this process one cell splits exactly in two producing two identical individuals. Budding: Organisms such as hydra and yeast reproduce asexually by budding. This happens when the parent produces a small bud or a smaller version of itself. Hyrda: small fresh water animals. Yeast: unicellular fungus. Spore Production: When one individual produces many spores, and each spore can become a new individual identical to it's parent. Ex. : Fungi, green algae Spores are similar to seeds but are produced in the division of cells of the parent, not by the union of two cells. Vegetative Reproduction: When the reproduction of a plant doesn't require a formation of a seed. Forms of vegetative reproduction are cutting, tubers, runners. bulbs, and suckers. Runners: Can also be called the stems of the plant. They grow at the soils surface or below forming new plants. Bulbs: A short underground shoot used for food storage. Roots begin to grow from the bottom of the bulb forming new stems and leaves. Cutting: When a branch of a plant gets cut off and is planted in water. The branch within time grows new roots and stems. Tubers: Happens when buds grow on the surface of a plant and each of these buds grow a new plant identical to the parent. Suckers: The roots of the plant. When broken some roots can grow a new plant. Advantages of Asexual Reproduction: Asexual Reproduction can produce very quickly.This is a great advantage for environments that don't have a large variation. Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction: The main disadvantage of asexual reproduction is that when conditions don't meet the standards of that certain environment. Sexual Reproduction in Plants? : During sexual reproduction in plants it requires a male gamete and a female gamete to produce a zygote and an embryo. Gamete: A cell that has one role only, it is to join with another gamete in reproduction. Embryo: An embryo will eventually within time will develop into an individual. In most plants, the embryo is produced inside a seed. Pollen: Contains the male gametes of a plant. Can be found in the stamen (male part) of the plant. Filament: Provides structure for the anther. The filament is also one of the male parts in the plant. Pistil: The female parts of the plant. Style: One of the female parts. The style is a long tube that leads to the ovary of the plant. Ovules: is the containment unit of the female gametes of the plant. Stigma: A sticky bulb at the top of the style. Ovary: Is found usually in the bottom of the plant. The ovary also contains the ovules. Stamen: The male parts of the plant. Anther: The male part of the plant that contains and produces the pollen. Usually found on top of the filament. Pollination: Happens when the pollen from the anther transfers to the stigma. Cross-Pollination: Happens when the pollen of one plant is transferred to another plant's stigma. This can happen by: wind, water, or animals (bees, butterflies). Cross-Fertilization: Happens when a grain of a pollen makes a tube the grows down the style of the plant into the ovary that has the ovules. Seed: Acts like a shield for the embryo. The seed also stores food for the embryo to eat when it begins to grow into an individual. Zygote: First cell of a new individual. Then divides into two cells. Bibliography:
http://www.artfulhome.com/product/Black--and--White-Photograph/Autumn-Lily-Pad-Flower/62251 Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction: The main disadvantage is that this type of reproduction does require a lot of energy. The End (:
Hope you enjoyed the concept map!
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