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Native American Marginalization

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Richard Mendoza

on 2 June 2014

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Transcript of Native American Marginalization

Native American Marginalization
Navajo: 308,013
Cherokee: 285,476
Sioux: 131,048
Chippewa: 115,859
Choctaw: 88,913
Family Structure:
Two married parents
Some tribes consider other family members as relatives once married, some do not
Father in charge of the family, mother takes care of the house and children
Children stay home until old enough to leave
Very open to the rest of the tribe
Some children would have two sets of parents in case of the biological parents death.
Practiced Nature Worship
Pantheism: believed all things on earth were part of a bigger, divine cause.
Honored nature when hunting by thanking the "Spirit" for it's life. Used only what they needed, and did not hunt for sport.
Folk Dancing: used for celebrations and ceremonies, tribes would dance to music as a cultural event.
Some tribes integrated Christian practices within their religion.
Warpaint: ceremonies and battle
Different colors meant different accomplishments held many symbolic meanings.
Medicine Bags: Skin pouches that held personal belongings to tribe members.
Medicine bags were to be left with the owner upon his/her death.
Burials: Tribes held differing customs for burying their deceased.
Some traditions would include: Set out to sea on boats, buried, left upon platforms in the open, or cremation.
Current Events:
Natives feel that Mt. Rushmore, "Defile's a spiritual landmark."
The Solidarity is high- failure to integrate Native American's into modern society led to the isolation of tribes.
Only 54% of Native Americans own their own homes. (Very compact living spaces.)
77% high school graduations, GED or alternative credential, 13% bachelor degree or higher.
28.4% in poverty.(15.3% National)
29.2% lack Health Coverage. (15.5% National)
highest motility rate, diabetes, highest teacher turnover, high crime and gang activity.
They live on small reservations in horrible conditions, stripped of territory they had been promised in the past.
Aaraon Huey

1500: Disease brought to New World
1519: Cortes completes conquering of the Aztec Empire
1541: Coronado attacks Pueblo Land, two hundred killed.
1542: Carlos V passed a law for Native slave-labor
1546: "New Laws" repealed
1585: Roanoke Islands(Virginia Colony) is established
1598: Don Juan Onate claims Hopi lads for Spain.

1607: Jamestown founded, John Smith saved by Pocahontas from tribal execution
1607: Interaction with settlers introduces diseases to Natives
1626: Peter Minuit buys Massachusetts from Natives for $24 in modern money.
1637: Settlers in New England massacre a Pequot Village
1637: Captain William Pierce trades Indian slaves for black slaves in West Indies
1675-1676: King Philips War- Conflict against Natives
1704: Spanish settlers take many Natives as slaves
1709: Slave Market constructed in New York with Backs and Indians
1754-1763: Natives and French war with Colonies in Seven Year War, or the French and Indian War
1775-1783: Revolutionary War, Indians aid war, mostly with British
1776-1789: United States becomes independent
1787: First federal treaty enacted with the Delaware Indians
1803: Louisiana Purchase made between Napoleon and Thomas Jefferson
1819: Congress establishes reporting of immigration
1829: President Andrew Jackson prompts congress to pass the Removal Act
1832: Cherokee tribes come together to revolt for independence
1832: Supreme Court in favor of Cherokee's independence
1838: Trail of Tears
1848: Expansion of the U.S. that invaded Native American Lands and relocated tribes.
1850: Massive hunting of buffalo eliminates most of Native American's main resource
1851: Treaties made with tribes for Oregon Trails
1855: Colonel William Harvey kills entire Brule Village
1861-1865: Civil War fought between North and South
1862: Homestead Act passed, starting a great Indian Migration
1865: President Abraham Lincoln Assassinated
1865: General Patrick Conner attacks Black Hills and kills every male over the age of twelve
1870: Buffalo herds diminished to crisis state
1870: Native Americans given the right to vote
1871: Indian Appropriation Act, tribes no longer noticed as independent Nations
1872: Mining Act of 1872: Alaskan Natives could not own land
1875: Second Sioux War over Black Hills

1906: Antiquities Act: all Native American possessions found on federal land was property of the US
1907: State of Oklahoma established
1913: Prohibition laws effect reservations
1917: US enters WWI(17,000 Indians serve and gain citizenship)
1924: Indian Citizenship Act: citizenship and voting rights for all American Indians
1928: The Merriam Report published, focusing on health and emotional issues that Natives faced
1934: Indian Reorganization Act: focused on Reconstructing Tribes culture(135/174 accept)
1942: U.S. joins WWII(25,000 Indians join war)
1961: National Indian Youth Council: Organization sought to instill pride in Native Americans.
1965-1973: Vietnam War(43,000 American Indians join war effort
1969: Native Americans occupy Alcatraz, attempting to form a reservation(many had been sent there before for indoctrination)
1970: President Richard Nixon denounces past federal policies and started a new era of Indian self-determination
1972: Trail of Broken Treaties: 500 Indians siege BIA in DC to list 20-point demands. (AIM recognized hereafter as an extremist group by FBI)
1973-1975: Shootouts and conflicts between federal units and Native American personal.
1978: American Indian Religious Freedom Act and Federal Acknowledgment Project
1980: U.S. vs Sioux Nation of Indians: Court rules that Sioux are entitles to $17.5million for the Black Hills and Fort Laramie treaty, but they refuse(money still gathers interest to this day)
1982: Natives can now house gambling enterprises on their land
1990 & 1996: Native Language Act: freedoms protected. National American Indian Month

1999: Shannon County, South Dakota, home of Oglala Lakota is identified as poorest place in the country...
The Broken Arrow
In his video about the history of Native American Marginalization, Aaron Huey pinpoints the issues that most of the U.S. overlooks. With the highest death rates, poverty, and crime rates of any race in the country, the Native American tribes have been left with the smallest piece of "meat". America has taken, and continues to hold, the lives of the Native Americans who's average live span is middle age. The Native Americans have indeed become the most marginalized as evident by their seclusion and cultural desecration...
"I Will Fight No More"
Chief Joseph addresses the struggles of his people and the hardships that they have faced due to the growth of settlers and foreign nations. In the writing he tires of fighting and wishes for peace and equality; a chance to live and grow he way his people dream of.
Full transcript