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Historical investigation

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Peitian Li

on 19 January 2015

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Transcript of Historical investigation

Reason3: Social Ideology (cont)
American Imperialism
Reason1: Industrial Development
1.The
demand
for raw materials led American merchants to call for expansion over foreign countries for natural resources. Some policy makers believed that imperialism would become necessary if America were to become the world’s predominant industrial power.
2.As an ever growing stream of sewing machines, reapers, textiles, and household goods poured out of the nation’s factories, business leader worried that
they were producing more products than Americans could buy
.
3.Many corporate executives believed that the people in new American possession can provide a
new free market
for the growing output of consumer products that American industry was turning out.
Reason2: Military Consideration
He stressed the importance of
naval power
in achieving and maintaining American influence on the world stage.

Mahan’s claim pushed America to develop a strong navy, maintain military bases and coaling station throughout the world, and administer an overseas empire.
Reason3: Social Ideology
Social Darwinist believed that the survival of the
fittest
could be applied to the rise and fall of nations.
Proponents of expansion warned that America had to play a
more aggressive
role in world affairs in order to win the race of free market and natural resources.
That is, if America failed to accept the challenge, it would risk falling behind its
rivals
in the global race for markets and resources.


Historical investigation
The investigation assesses
why the United States choose to extend its influence beyond its borders and become an imperialist country.
The research will evaluate some details that show the shift of American's attitude from "Neutrality Act" by Washington to suddenly great interests in foreign countries and discuss different policies that led to America's greater influence as world superpower. The research will follow these following steps:
1)Provide database that showed the rapid growth of America industrialization
2)Evaluate some significant figures that urged America to further expand such as Alfred Thayer Mahan
3)Discuss the ideology that influence the policy makers during 1890~1920
4)Use political cartoons to evaluate the policies at the time
The research used
A HISTORY OF American Foreign Policy
by Alexander de Conde as primary resource and
Thinkquest.org
as secondary resouce.
Aftermath of Spanish-American War 1
The Platt Amendment
granted the USA the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and permitted the United States to lease or buy lands for the purpose of the establishing naval bases (the main one is Guantanamo Bay )and coaling stations in Cuba.
It
barred
Cuba from making a treaty that gave another nation power over its affairs, going into debt, or stopping the United States from imposing a sanitation program on the island. Troops intervened on three separate occasions when the USA perceived that its investments were threatened, making Cuba a
protectorate
of USA.
Aftermath of Spanish-American War 2
After the Spanish American War, Puerto Rico became territory of USA. Many Puerto Ricans hoped for independence, while some argued for U.S. statehood, but the American government rejected both. The
Foraker Act
(1900) denied U.S. citizenship to Purto Ricans, while allowing the President of the United States to appoint Puerto Rico's governor and members of the upper house of the legislature. In the
Insular Cases
, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that "the Constitution does not follow the falg" -- that is, constitutional rights don't necessarily apply to people living in the U.S.
-Sphere of Influence
-With the United States in possession of Hawaii and the Philippines, interest in China which had vast population and nearly nonexistent industrial capacity was strong.
-Secretary of State
John Hay
became increasingly worried that the European powers and Japan would restrict American trading opportunities in China. On September 6, 1899 he dispatched a series of notes to Great Britain, Germany, Russia, France, Italy, and Japan asking the governments of these six nations to agree to respect the rights and privileges of other nations within its sphere of Influence.
In short, all nations have equal access to China; no nation would discriminate against other nations.
Open Door Policy
Roosevelt Corollary
Rossevelt became concerned when the
Dominican Republic
borrowed more money from its European creditors than it could pay back. Roosevelt worried that
financial instability
in the Dominican Republic would lead to European intervention.
Roosevelt responded to the crisis in the Dominican Republic by proclaiming the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Like the Monroe Doctrine, Roosevelt Corollary was a
unilateral declaration
motivated by American national interest. It
changed
the Monroe Doctrine from a statement
against the intervention
of European powers in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere to a justification of the unrestricted American right to
regulate
Caribbean affairs.
Citing the Roosevelt Corollary, American personnel supervised the Dominican customs office to assure the payment of debts to European creditors.
Monroe Doctrine
President Monroe
feared that France might use force to help Spain overthrow the New Latin American republics.
Monroe presented the American position on Latin America in a speech to Congress delivered on December 2, 1823:
1. The American continent is no longer open to European colonization
2.
The USA will regard European interference in the political affairs of independent New Wolrd nations as hostile behavior
3. The USA will not interfere in the internal affiars of European nations.
Moral Diplomacy
Wilson rejected both TR’s policy of big stick diplomacy and Taft’s policy of dollar diplomacy. Instead, he believed that foreign policy should be guided by moral principles and not power and money. Wilson believed that USA should practice moral diplomacy by promoting democratic values and moral progress.
United States government should only aid countries in Latin America or other nations that supported the overall interest of the United States.

Wilson
rejected both TR’s policy of big stick diplomacy and Taft’s policy of
Dollar Diplomacy
, which implied that business interest drove American foreign policy.
Instead, he believed that foreign policy should be guided by
moral principles
and not power and money. Wilson believed that United States government should only aid countries in Latin America or other nations that supported the
overall interest
of the United States.
Summery of Evidence
Reason1: Industrial Development
Summery of Evidence
Alfred Thayer Mahan
The White Man’s Burden, Rudyard Kipling
Some white felt that it was the duty of “
civilized
” people to uplift the less fortunate.

EXAMPLE
:
During the Philippine War,
President McKinley
stressed the war was America’s duty “to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them”.


The research used
A HISTORY OF American Foreign Policy
, by Alexander de Conde, as the primary source. The book provides thirty chapters that evaluate the relations between the United States, China, Europe, and Middle East. The book provides insight in Constitution, showing the readers what power did the presidents use during the time. The author also analyze whether the power is consistent with the Constitution. Additionally, it provides maps and photos that enable the readers to have a understanding of big picture of the history rather than to risk being confused by words.
Thinkquest.org

listed the reasons for American imperialism and clearly explained each. It compared American imperialism with European imperialism in Africa and Asia. The details are specifically summarized but not hard to read through since it clearly stated what was going on during the time and contributed pictures that help readers to understand thoroughly. At last part of the section, it listed some questions that the reader might have and gave each of them a detailed answer. It provided evidence that the book by Alexander does not have given.
The radical implicit in
“The White Man’s Burden
” was starkly displayed at the World Fair in Chicago in 1893 as a sideshow of the “exotic” people’s of the world was presented to fairgoers. These displays of natives were
contrasted
with the industry and progress of the advanced civilizations. The obvious Implication was that the advances of civilization must be made available to the rest of the world.
Also, the ideology of Social Darwinist presented a feeling of superiority that coincided with European imperialists during the Age of Exploration. That is, because the European powers and Americans were the fittest, they were superior over the “uncivilized” countries; because they were the superior, they had the obligation to Christianize the uncivil ones. This can also be seen from Roosevelt’s conviction and his policy, the
Big Stick,
which implied the threat of military force. He envisioned the United States acting as the world’s
policeman
, pushing wrongdoers. He asserted that the “civilized nations” had a duty to police the “
backward
” countries of the world and that the United States had the right to intervene militarily in the nations of Latin America.
The
Roosevelt Corollary
contradicts American history itself: Whereas the
Monroe Doctrine
was written to
keep
Europe
from
colonizing the western hemisphere further and to
keep
the U.S. from
interfering
in European affairs, the Corollary broadened that and gave the U.S. police powers to interfere in the western hemisphere when needed.
Also, one can see the
selfish
interests embraced by the imperialist as demonstrated by Hay’s
Open Door Policy
that was designed to protect American commercial interests in China. The European powers and Japan neither accepted nor rejected Hay’ Open Door Notes. Although America’s Open Door Policy had no legal standing, Hays boldly announced that all of the powers had agreed.
Analysis
The First Industrial Revolution in Britain drove the European powers to again long for colonizing countries with free markets and natural resources. The advanced technology not only made Britain impregnable but also “granted” them to highly esteem itself. Like the European counterparts, America, a nation boomed under the light of Big Business, was also eager to create its own sphere of influence and rival the world superpowers. Anti-imperialists argued that expansion would violate America’s long standing commitment to human freedom and rule by the “consent of governed”. Indeed, American imperialism violated Washington’s Neutrality Act, which stated America would remain neutral and avoid forming “permanent alliances” with other foreign countries because Roosevelt Corollary clearly showed that America would not remain neutral; rather, it would act upon European intervention of the Americas Republic. However, having said that, had it not for these changes, America would not have become one of the most powerful countries and would not have opened the market that strengthened its wealth.
Conclusion
Gevinson, Historian Alan. "Teaching History.org, Home of the National History Education Clearinghouse." American policies National History Education Clearinghouse, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2013.

Quack. "Open Door Policies." Yahoo Contributor Network. Yahoo, 27 Aug. 2008. Web. 16 Nov. 2013.

Schwarzer, William W. "Roosevelt Corrollary" The Chicago Literary Club. Chit Chat Club, 14 Dec. 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2013

"Progressivism" History.com. Ed. Eric Foner. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2013.

"Early History." Early History. China, Japan, America, Britain n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2014.

Hanson, David J. "Monroe Doctrine" Bitglyph, n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2014.

Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Dollar Policy" About.com Women's History. About.com, n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2014.

Sources
Evaluation of Sources
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