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E.Y Pressure Vessels
Transcript of E.Y Pressure Vessels
We all live in a large pressure vessel, the “big blue marble”
Vessels exceeded maximum temperature for MAWP or maximum test pressure
Improper or malfunctioning gauges
Improper operation, maintenance, repair, retrofitting; Delayed or no replacement
Steel hatch cover blown 35 feet
2001 Michigan Incident
Severed base of waste oil tank
Ruptured tank moved off highway
Consensus Standards for Engineering Controls
ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers
API – American Petroleum Institute
NBIC – National Board Inspection Code
NBBI – National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors
ANSI – American National Standards Institute
ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials
ASNT – American Society of Non-Destructive Testing
AWS – American Welding Society
PD5500 or BS 5500 - Published Document
Boiler & Pressure Vessel Codes
Power Boilers: Sec. I & VII
Heating Boilers: Sec. IV & VI
Pressure Vessels: Sec. VIII
Nuclear Reactor Vessels: Sec. III & XI
Transport Trucks: Sec. XII
Materials: Sec. II ferrous/nonferrous metals/alloys
Fiberglass, Reinforced Plastic: Sec. X
Welding and Brazing: Sec. IX
Thermal Annealing, Tempering: Sec. VIII
American Petroleum Institute
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Tests
Graduate Mechanical Engineer
A = 2πr^2 + 2πrh
V = (4/3)π(r^3)
A = 4π(r^2)
P = Force /Area
101kPa = 1 atm 14.7 psi
Goals for my presentation:
“Generally, a pressure vessel is a storage tank or vessel that has been designed to operate at pressures above 15 p.s.i.g.”
What does open or closed type storage tank or vessel mean?
Open or Closed?
Open cylinder and piston
Thick or thin?
Thick- t/r>1/10- cylinders, tanks, gun barrels
Thin t/r<1/10- boilers, pipes
Pressure Vessel: a storage tank or vessel operates at pressures above 15 p.s.i.g.
Injuries and Defects
(One Killed, Eight Injured)
Shrapnel injured 8 workers
Worker Killed Pressurizing Waste Oil Storage Tank
500 gallon(1892.71 liter) waste oil storage tank.
(ASME Design, Design, Fabrication and Certification)
Standards and Codes
(Service Operation, Maintenance and Inspection)
Valves, Gauges, and Tests
Hydrostatic Test: water/inert liquid & dyes (1.5x MAWP)
Pneumatic Test: air or inert gas (~1.25 x MAWP)
Combined Test: hydrostatic & pneumatic tests
Visual Examination (VT)
Liquid(Dye) Penetrant Test (PT)
Magnetic Particle Test (MT)
Ultrasonic Test (UT)
Radiographic Test (RT): Gamma ray or X-ray radiography
More information for Water-Jacketed
(ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section V)
Pressure Vessels - Introduction
Pressure Vessel Design
Pressure Vessel Problems
Injuries and Defects
Health and Safety
Be able to define and recognize pressure vessels and pressure vessel design
Examine what went wrong during case histories
Know where to go for more information, regulatory compliance and specialists
for your attention!!!
Hot Water Boiler Exposition Example
NB-23: Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspection (Part 1: Installation; Part 2: Inspection; Part 3: Repair and Alteration)
Petroleum and Chemical Process Industry Pressure Vessels
API 510: Pressure vessel inspection
(API recommended Practices: RP571, RP572, RP576, RP577)
API 620: Design/Fabrication of welded tanks
British Standard (PD5500 or BS 5500)
PD5500 or BS 5500: Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels (PD 5500:2009 & Updated version PD 5500:2012)
Emptied by injecting with compressed
Tank ruptured, propelled 500 feet(152.4 meter)
Worker killed; hit by base of burst tank.
Tank not ASME/NBIC nor PD5500 approved pressure vessel.
We have evolved adapting to atmospheric pressure 14.7 psig.
24 January 2013
How much is that?
Pressure Vessel Definition:
What does thick or thin storage tank or vessel mean?
Pre-Code, old, cast iron, cracked, leaking, corroded, damaged, bulging vessels
Vessels overpressurized above MAWP (maximum allowable working pressure) or maximum test pressure
Vessels exposed to extreme heat, fire
Inadequate safeguards for hazardous materials; no leak/spill contingency plan
Failing valves, gaskets, relief devices
ASME non-conforming (no ASME-stamped symbol, no vessel specifications & limitations)
Not NBIC/API/PD5500 shop/field-certified (alternative approval for vessels if not ASME-stamped)
Infrequent or no code-required inspection & testing (or non-code inspection & testing)
2008 New Jersey Explosion
steel hatch with lugs
Old pressure vessel leaked.
Casting molten aluminum
3 workers replaced bad O-Ring, over-pressurized vessel.
Heard "hiss", increased pressure 112 psi to force gasket in place.
Killed worker stood by hatch to locate leak.
Hatch blown 35 feet(10.668 meter)
National Board Inspection Code (NBIC)
Boiler & Pressure Vessel Codes