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The Chemistry of Life.
Transcript of The Chemistry of Life.
Energy in reactions
Energy is released or absorbed whenever chemical bonds form or are broken
Chemical reactions that release energy often occur spontaneously
Because of their partial positive and negative charges, polar molecules such as atoms can attract each ot
A single water molecule may be involved in as many as four hydrogen bonds at the same time. The ability of water to form multiple hydrogen bonds is responsible for as many of waters properties
The Chemistry of Life.
Atoms, they are the basis for everything in the Universe. There is 3 basic parts to an atom you must remember:
-Electrons -Protons -Neutrons
Electrons are the smallest of the 3, they are found in orbitals that surround the nucleus of an atom.
Protons and Neutrons On the other hand, are found in the center of the nucleus. All three group together in the center of the atom.
Chemistry of Carbon
Properties of water
Like all molecules, a water molecule (H2O) is neutral. The positive charges on its 10 protons balance out the negative charges on its 10 electrons
With 8 protons in its nucleus, an oxygen atom has a much stronger attraction for electrons than the hydrogen atom.
Elements & Isotopes
A chemical reaction is a process that changes,or transforms, one set of chemicals.
A chemical element is a pure substance that consists a entirely of one type of atom. Atoms in an element can have different #s of neutrons.
: Same atoms element, different number of neutrons.
: Isotopes with an unstable nuclei and breaks down at a constant rate over time.
Some chemical reactions occur slowly, such as the combination of iron and oxygen to form an iron oxide called rust.
Chemical reaction always involve changes in the chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds
The energy is released from heat, and gas explosions and light or sound
is a substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions.
properties of a compound are very different from those of the elements which it formed.
Solutions and Suspensions
Water is not always pure. It is often found as a part of a mixture. For example, salt and pepper stirred constitute a mixture
Water polarity gives it the ability to dissolve both ionic compounds and other polar molecules such as sugar. Without exaggeration, water is the best solvent on Earth
Some chemical reaction that make life possible are too slow or have activation energies.
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.
The pH scale
Chemist have created a measurement scale called the pH scale to indicate the concentration of ions in solution. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. When the pH is at a 7, the concentration is neutral.
The highest number on the pH scale, the more basic the solution is
The main types of chemical bonds are
: Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
: Positively and negatively charged atoms.
: Formed when electrons are shared between atoms.
The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions are known as substrates.
Enzymes in action
Where do all these H+ ions in low pH solution come from? They come from acids. Acids are any compounds that form H+ ions in solutiomn
Strong acids tend to have pH that range from 1 to 3. The acids are produced by the stomach to help digest food
Carbon Atoms have four Valence electrons.
Each electron can join with an electron from another atom to form a strong covalent bond.
Carbon can bond with many elements including hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus,sulfur, and nitrogen
-in Fact living organisnms are made up of molecules that
consist of carbon and these other elements
The 6th Most abundant element in the universe
Most of the Molecules in living organisms celss a so large that they are refereed to as MACROMOLECULES
Van Der Waals Forces
Van Der Waals Forces
Molecules that are close together, a slight attraction develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules.
Although they are not as strong as ionic bonds or covalent bonds, they can hold molecules together, especially when the molecules are large.
Macro molecules are formed by a process known as polymerizaion, in which large compouns are built by joining smaller ones together
the smaller units of macromolecules are made of monomers and polymers.
Four groups of organic compounds found in living things are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins
carbohydrates are compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of 1:2:1
living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants and some animaols also use carbohydrates for structural purpose.
Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be brought together to react.
Enzymes can be effected by any variable that influences a chemical reaction
Most cells contains proteins that help to turn key enzymes "on "off"at critical stages in the cell.
Nucleic acids are macromolecules containing Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon, and Phosphorus
chemist call the energy that is needed to get a reaction started a activation energy.
Even chemical reaction that release energy do not always occur spontaneously
Lipids are a large and varied group of biological molecules that are generally not solube in water.
They are made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Lipids can be used to store energy. Some lipds are important parts of biological membranes and water proof.
Many lipids are formed when glycerol molecule combines with fatty acids.
Nucleotides consist of 3 parts: a 5-carbon sugar,a phosphate group,and a nitrogen base
Active energy is the minimum energy that must be available to the chemical with potentiel reactants to result in chemical reaction
-California Prentice hall Biology (Miller Levine)
-Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments (Gerald Karp & Nancy Pruitt)