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Road to Communism
Transcript of Road to Communism
Communism Setting the Stage China was ripe for revolution
Foreign countries controlled China's trade and economic resources
Most believed that modernization and nationalism were the keys to survival Nationalists overthrow the Qing Dynasty Qing had ruled China since 1644
In 1912 the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) lead by Sun Yixian (Sun Yatsen) overthrew the Qing Dynasty
Sun Yixian became President of the the Republic of China Sun Yixian Kuomintang Republic OPtimistic Start Chaos 3 Main Goals of Sun Yixian 1. Nationalism - an end to foreign control
2. Democracy - people's right to govern
3. Economic security - people's livelihood Sun Yixian lacked the military support and authority to gain national unity
Yuan Shikai, a military general, is given task of leading China. Leads as a dictator, not democratic leader
After Shikai's death, chaos follows. China turned to civil war between warlords. Millions suffered. weak leadership
terror of warlord armies
nationwide protests spread
Outcome of WWI (on winning side, but got no reward) Problems facing Kuomintang China Communist Party of China Forms A group of Chinese intellectuals begin meeting in Beijing and Shanghai, among them is Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-Tung)
Alliance is formed
Sun Yixian is also disillusioned with western democracy - he expected aid from the west he never received
Communists are gaining more and more support
1923 - Official alliance is made with the help of Soviet communists becomes Kuomintang leader after death of Yixian (1925)
Initially worked together with communists to fight against powerful Chinese warlords, who still controlled much of the countryside.
Once he got the warlords under control, Jiang sees the communists as his new enemy. Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) Why turn against the communists?
Against communist economic policies and beliefs
concentration of power in party leaders (against democratic ideals)
support of lower and middle classes by upper class (rich would lose money and property) Nationalists Consolidate Power Jiang uses nationalist troops and hired armed gangs to hunt down communists and union members.
Wipes out main communist areas (Shanghai Massacre), survivors are forced into hiding. Mao Leads the Communists in Rural China Effects on the Chinese people? Communism was becoming very popular in rural China
Communists promised land reform (equal land for all peasants)
Jiang's government proved to be corrupt and un-democratic
So Mao and the surviving communists took to the hillsides
recruited an army and trained them in guerilla warfare
guerilla warfare = small-scale, drawn-out fighting tactics The Long March 1933 - Jieshi gathered an army of 700,000 to hunt down communists in their mountain stronghold
outnumbered communists 6:1
The communists were able to escape before they were surrounded
Nationalists chased after
6000 miles (!!!) journey ending in northeastern China
small battles were a daily occurence, but the communists were somehow able to consistently stay ahead of the nationalists
Very difficult terrain - many major rivers and mountains
Approximately 10-30,000 of the original 100,000 communists lived through the journey.
Communists settled in northern China and regrouped for more civil war. Civil War VS Mao Tse-Tung & Communists Jiang Jieshi and Nationalists