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Chapter 19

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by

Michael Snider

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 19

Chapter 19
Drifting Towards Disunion

Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Succeeded in opening the people's eyes to the horror of slavery
Prevented Britain and France from intervening on behalf of the South
Hinton R. Helper
He wrote "The Impending Crisis of the South"
It caused so much controversy that it was banned in the South and it helped to further divide the country
Influential Authors
Kansas
North - South Contest for Kansas
Abolitionist groups were moving into Kansas
South was angered because Kansas was supposed to be a slave state
"Border Ruffians"
The election of 1855 was the first territorial election
John Brown
John Brown was an antislavery leader
He lead a group that murdered 5 men that were believed to be pro-slavery
There were many retaliations to this resulting in Civil War in Kansas in 1856
1857 - Kansas has enough people to apply for statehood
Lecompton Constitution
Created by pro-slavery forces
People voted for a constitution with or without slavery
Yet, even if the no-slavery version won, current slaveholders in Kansas would still be protected
Buchanan - President
Under southern influence
Supported the Lecompton Constitution
Douglas - Senator
Opposed the Lecompton Constitution
A compromise between the two resulted in a popular vote where free soilers overturned it
Further divided the democratic party
The troubles of the "Bleeding Kansas" Crisis spread to the floor of the Senate in 1856
Senator Charles Sumner had given a speech - "Crime Against Kansas"
Senator Preston Brooks retaliated to Sumner's claims on May 22, 1856 by pounding him with a cane
The Election of 1856
Nominating Conventions
Results
Democrats
Democrats met in Cincinnati
Chose James Buchanan
He was unattached to the Kansas - Nebraska Act
Republicans
Republicans met in Philadelphia
They chose John C. Frémont
He was also unattached to the Kansas - Nebraska Act
American (Know-Nothing) Party
Created by "Nativists"
Supported by Whigs
Nominated Millard Fillmore
Criticism Towards The Candidates
Buchanan won
South threatened to secede if Frémont won
However, this election showed that the Republicans would be a force in the next election
Dred Scott Bombshell
Dred Scott vs. Stanford March 6,1857
Dred Scott sued his master for freedom because he lived on free soil
The South rejoiced over an unexpected victory
The Supreme Court ruled that legally Scott couldn't sue in Federal Court because he wasn't a citizen
The Supreme Court also declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
The decision further divided the Democratic Party
Republicans declared the ruling as an opinion, not a decision
Southerners began to question if they could stay in a country that didn't honor Supreme Court Rulings
Financial Crash of 1857
Causes
Californian Gold Rush
Crimean War
Overspeculation
North v. South
North and West were hard hit
South primarily unaffected
North demanded free farms
South was opposed to this
Tariff of 1857
Lowered duties to lowest point since the War of 1812
Now the Republicans had two sure fire issues for the 1860 election
Lincoln Emerges
Illinois Senate Election of 1858 drew America's Attention
Douglas' term was expiring and Republicans chose Abe to run against him
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
7 debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas in 1858
Results
Douglas wins senate seat because of his support of popular sovereignty
Harpers Ferry
John Brown and fellow abolitionists seized a federal arsenal in an effort to rally up slaves to revolt but slaves failed to rise
He was tried and executed for treason
North viewed him as a hero and martyr
South viewed him as a murderer
Further divided the country
The Election of 1860
Democrats
Northern Democrats
Charleston 1860
Northern Democrats liked Douglas
Southern Democrats did not and walked out in protest
After the failure of the Democratic National Convention in Charleston, the Democrats decided to try again in Baltimore
Northern Democrats still firmly supported Douglas
Southern Democrats left again in protest
Northern Democrats officially nominate Stephen Douglas for the presidency
Southern Democrats
After Southern Democrats stormed out in Baltimore they had their own convention
Southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckinridge
Republicans
Seward was a well known candidate but had many enemies
Lincoln was nominated because he had fewer enemies
Southerners said the electing of Lincoln would split the union
Constitutional Unity Party
Middle road democrats
Made of Know-Nothings and Whigs
Nominated John Bell
Results
Lincoln Wins
South thought they lost terribly in the election but still had power
Secession
Secession Begins
Dec. 1860-Four days after Lincoln won, South Carolina called a special convention and decided to unanimously secede
Several other states would also secede in the weeks to come
Southern Government
Feb. 1861 - The Confederate States of America was created in Montgomery Alabama
Chose Jefferson Davis as president
Buchanan
"Lame Duck"
The states seceded during "lame duck" period so many blamed Buchanan for not holding the Union together
Collapse of Compromise
Crittenden Amendments were proposed by John Crittenden
Lincoln rejected them
Farewell to the Union
Questions?
Freeport Debate
Freeport Question
Freeport Doctrine
Platform
Popular sovereignty
Supported the fugitive slave act
Platform
For the extension of slavery
Annexation of Cuba
Platform
Appealed to almost all Northerners and many other groups for different reasons
Reasons for Secession
Slavery
Political Balance
Nationalism
Opportunity to Develop Individually
Thought that Secession would be Largely Unopposed
Full transcript