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The Endocrine System - 7th Grade Brawley Middle
Transcript of The Endocrine System - 7th Grade Brawley Middle
travel through the blood
produce an effect in target cells automatic process different hormones perform different jobs Glands groups of specialized cells produce hormones release hormones into circulatory system pituitary gland director of the endocrine system size of a pea located at base of brain hypothalamus attached to the pituitary connects the nervous system with the endocrine system Pineal buried deep in the brain sensitive to light hormone it secretes helps with rhythms like:
body temperature (circadian)
reproduction (biological clock)
aging thyroid creates hormones responsible for growth and metabolism (also helps with energy storage) made of million of storage pouches to store hormones produces calcitonin to regulate calcium in the body. thymus located in the chest helps fight disease by controlling the production of T cells. adrenal located on top of kidneys gives off ~30 different hormones that regulate:
salt levels some hormones help with allergies produces adrenaline which makes your heart beat faster. pancreas part of the digestive and endocrine systems produces two hormones:
insulin (moves glucose from blood to muscle, fat & liver cells to use as fuel)
glucagon (used to raise really low blood sugar) regulates amount of glucose in the blood beneath stomach and connected to sm. intestine ovaries and testes produces hormones that control sexual development other organs of endocrine system Kidneys produces a hormone that regulates production of red blood cells Heart produces hormones that regulate blood pressure Feedback mechanisms helps endocrine system regulate homeostasis
(negative feedback mechanisms) most glands are regulated by the pituitary gland NEGATIVE FEEDBACK POSITIVE FEEDBACK BALANCED Hormone Action Hormone IMBALANCE most feedback mechanisms are negative Page 115 in book produces a response that continues to increase may result in an extreme response example: bleeding when cut (page 115) other examples:
childbirth hormones acting in opposite directions example: insulin lowers glucose levels in body and glucagon increases glucose levels in body. hormones regulate critical functions in the body too little or too much of a hormone can cause serious illness example: too little insulin and sugar levels rise to dangerous heights.
too much sugar can damage the circulatory system & kidneys Diabetes treated by injecting synthetic insulin into body to make up for the insulin NOT being produced by pancreas. hyperthyroidism = too much thyroid hormone produced.
overeating (weight gain)
increased body temperature due to high metabolism
end of the day fatigue - due to overuse of energy hypothyroidism = too little thyroid hormone produced. Leads to:
dry and/or yellow skin
swollen hands, feet or face
lower body temperature (chills)
aches & pains in joints
fatigue - due to lack of energy
Diabetes (I & II) - caused by body not making enough insulin to control the amount of glucose in blood and surrounding tissues. hormones include: estrogen, progesterone and testosterone Erythropoietin (EPO) A-type Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) cyclic and constantly fluctuating