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Westward Expansion:

This is a study guide for the Texas STAAR. The Eras are Westward Expansion, The Gilded Age, Imperialism, Progressive Era, World War I, Roaring Twenties, Great Depression, World War II, Cold War, Turmoil of 1960s and 1980-2008

casey salmon

on 29 April 2015

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Transcript of Westward Expansion:

Westward Expansion: (Late 1800s)
Settlers were encouraged to move westward after the Civil War by federal legislation such as the Homestead Act, which gave 160 acres of land to the American citizens who were committed to settling on the land and who could pay the $10 registration fee. However farming on the plains proved much more difficult than many settlers thought it would be Thousands of blacks moved west after the Civil War to escape life in the South; mining, ranching, and lumbering also attracted settlers to the West. The westward expansion greatly affected the lives of Native Americans, who were removed to Oklahoma and South Dakota. Farmers in the West began to organize; Farmer Alliance and the Grange were established to project farmers’ rights. The 1893 Turner Thesis (well know theory promulgated by a distinguished historian) proposed the idea that settlers had to become more adaptable and innovative as they moved westward and that these characteristics slowly became ingrained into the very fabric of American society.
1. Homestead Act: bill that did much to encourage settler to move west; 160 acres of land was given to any settler who was an American citizen or who had applied for citizenship, who was committed to farming the land for six months of the year, and who could pay the $10 registration fee for the land
2. Transcontinental Railroad: In 1862, the Pacific Railroad Act chartered the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Companies, and tasked them with building a transcontinental railroad that would link the United States from east to west. Over the next seven years, the two companies would race toward each other from Sacramento, California on the one side and Omaha, Nebraska on the other, struggling against great risks before they met at Promontory, Utah, on May 10, 1869.
3. Massacre at Wounded Knee(1890): battle that was the last large-scale attempt by Native Americans to resist American settlement in the Great Plains region
4. Assimilation: to absorbed into American society as landowner and citizens.
5. Dawes Act(1887): act designed to break up Native American tribes by offering individual Native America land to be used for either farming or grazing
6. Populist Party: Formed in 1892 by members of the Farmer’s Alliance, this party was designed to appeal to workers in all parts of the country. Populist lists favored a larger role in American society, a progressive income tax and more directed methods of democracy.
7. Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890: aimed to control the power of trust and monopolies
Review Questions:
The Daws Act
a. Tried to turn Native Americans into farmers who would farm their own individual plots only
b. Protected Native American land for further encroachment\
c. Broke up large Native American reservation into smaller ones
d. Made Ghost Dances illegal

The organization that expressed the views of famers to the largest national audience was
a. the Greenback party
b. the Populist party
c. the Grange
d. the Color Famer’s National Alliance

1848: California Gold Rush
1859: Silver discovered in Comstock Nevada
1862: Homestead Act, Morrill Land-Grant Act
1867: Founding of Grange
1869: Transcontinental Railroad Competed
1870: Popularity of Deadwood Dick, Stories by Bret Harte and other dime-store novels
1874: Barbed wire invented by Joseph Gidden
1876: Battle of Little Bighorn
1880s: Largest movement of immigrants westward
1883: “Buffalo Bills” Wild West Show begins
1886: Beginnings of harsh weather that would help destroy the cattle industry
1887: Dawes Act
1889: Indian territories open for white settlement
1890: Massacre at Wounded Knee
Wyoming women get to vote
High point of political influence of the Farmer’s Alliances
1893: Beginning of great depression on the 1890s
Publication of the Turner Thesis
1896: William Jennings Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” Speech

The Gilded Age: (Late 1800s)
During this era, there was a massive industrial growth in the United States, making America the major industrial producer of the world. This growth was largely a product of the expansion of heavy industry; steel was an important component of the industrial growth. The development of the assembly line and Taylorism, which encouraged efficiency in the workplace, created a factory setting where skilled workmanship was de-emphasized and Horizontal and Vertical integration allowed major American businesses such as Standard Oil and United States Steel to expand greatly. American workers began to unionize in this era through labor organizations such as the Kings of Labor, the American Federation of Labor and the Industrial Workers of the World. “New” immigrants from eastern and southern Europe took unskilled jobs in many of the expanding factories but were not wanted by some labor organizations. The American city was also greatly transformed in this era. Political machines dominated many city governments although efforts took place at the federal level to create a professional civil service system.
Events and Terms to Know:
1. Taylorism: following management practices of the industrial engineer Fredrick Winslow Taylor the belief that factories should be managed in a scientific manner, utilizing techniques that would increase the efficiency of the individual workers and the factory process as a whole.
2. Horizontal integration: a strategy of gaining as much control over a single industry as possible, oftentimes by creating trust and holding companies this strategy was utilized by John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil.
3. Vertical integration: a strategy of gaining as much control over a single industry as possible by controlling the production, marketing and distribution of the finished product. Andrew Carnegie and U.S. Steel are the best example from the era of this approach.
4. Gospel of Wealth: the philosophy of Andrew Carnegie, who believed that wealthy industrialist, had an obligation to help local communities and philanthropic organizations.
5. Knights of Labor: established in the 1880s this was the major union of the decade. It was made up of unions of many industries and accepted unskilled workers.
6. Gilded Age: a depiction of late-nineteenth-century America that emphasizes a surface of great prosperity hiding problems of social inequality and cultural shallowness.
7. Tammany Hall: political machine that ran New York City Democratic and city politic beginning in the 1870; became a model of other urban political machines in the late 1800s.
8. Laissez- fare: let the people alone. No government regulation.
9. Trust: a new way of merging business that does not violate the law against owning other companies. A trust is a legal concept that allows one person to manage another person’s property. The person who manages another person’s property is called a trustee.
10. Holding company: A holding company does not produce anything itself. Instead it owns the stock of the company that does produce goods.
11. Nativism: preference for native-born people and desire to limit immigration.

12. Immigration: Foreigners coming into a country.
13. Emigration: Citizens getting out of the country.
14. Migration : Citizens stuck in the country going place to place within that country.

15. Political Machines: an informal political group designed to gain and keep power, came about partly because cities had grown much faster than their governments.
16. Political Bosses: man in charge of the Political Machine. EX. William M. “Boss” Tweed
17. Tenements: Dark and crowding multi-family apartments.

18. Social Darwinism: the theory that persons, groups, and races are subject to the same laws of natural selection as Charles Darwin had perceived in plants and animals in nature. According to the theory, which was popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the weak were diminished and their cultures delimited, while the strong grew in power and in cultural influence over the weak. Social Darwinists held that the life of humans in society was a struggle for existence ruled by “survival of the fittest,” a phrase proposed by the British philosopher and scientist Herbert Spencer.
19. Americanization: is the process of an immigrant to the United States becoming a person who shares American values, beliefs and customs and is assimilated into American Society.
People to Know:
1. Alexander G. Bell: inventor of the telephone.
2. Thomas Edison: inventor of the light bulb.
3. Cornelius Vanderbilt: Railroad Tycoon.
4. Andrew Carnegie: Owner of U.S. Steel.
5. John D Rockefeller: Owner of Standard Oil.
6. Jacob Riis: published “How the Other Half Lives, a documentary account of slum life in New York City.
7. William M. “Boss” Tweed: was a rather second-rate politician who moved up the ranks of the Tammany Hall political organization in New York City in the 1850's and 1860's to become one of the most powerful men in New York City politics. At that time, party politics were controlled by many of these organizations, and Tammany became one of the most powerful.
8. Jane Addams: co-founded one of the first settlements in the United States, the Hull House in Chicago, Illinois, in 1889, and was named a co-winner of the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize.
Time Line:
1869: Kings of the Labor founded in Philadelphia
1870: Beginning of Tammy Hall’s control over New York City politics
1881: Assassination of President James Garfield
1882: Chinese Exclusion Act passed by Congress
1883: Pendleton Civil Service Act enacted
1890: Publication of How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis
1892: Ellis Island open to process immigrates on the East Coast.
1901: Assignation of President William McKinley
1903: Ford Motor established
1905: Industrial Worker of the World Formed
1906: Publication of the Jungle by Upton Sinclair
1913: Ford creates the assembly line

During the nineteenth century, one way political bosses gained voter support was by —
a. campaigning for women’s suffrage
b. advocating the use of poll taxes
c. making improvements in urban infrastructure
d. providing public assistance for former slaves

During the 1920s, what was one result of innovations in U.S. transportation technology?
a. Commercial airplanes replaced ocean liners as the primary means of travel to Europe.
b. Mass-produced automobiles made travel more affordable for many people.
c. Cable cars provided a comfortable means of quick travel to any city within a state.
d. Container ships delivered agricultural goods to ports along the Pacific coast.

During the nineteenth century, one way political bosses gained voter support was by —
a. campaigning for women’s suffrage
b. advocating the use of poll taxes
c. making improvements in urban infrastructure
d. providing public assistance for former slaves

During the 1920s, what was one result of innovations in U.S. transportation technology?
a. Commercial airplanes replaced ocean liners as the primary means of travel to Europe.
b. Mass-produced automobiles made travel more affordable for many people.
c. Cable cars provided a comfortable means of quick travel to any city within a state.
d. Container ships delivered agricultural goods to ports along the Pacific coast.

During the Gilded Age there was a notable increase in federal support for —
a. the growth of big business
b. involvement in foreign wars
c. the acquisition of foreign territories
d. increased temperance regulations

Progressive Era: (1890-1920)
Progressivism began in the 1890s as a movement that attacked the political, social, and political inequalities of the age. Many progressives blamed capitalism for the evils of society. However, unlike the Socialist, who wanted destroy the capitalist system, the progressive wanted to fix that system. Many progressives were tied to the Social Gospel movement of the Protestant church; other wanted to reform city governments, who still other desired to install even more democracy in electoral process (direct primaries, more use of the referendum. ect). Many progressives lunched projects to aid the immigration population that existed in the America’s cities. One example was Hull House, a settlement house that aided Chicago poor. The high point of progressive movement was the “Square Deal” of the presidency of the Theodore Roosevelt. Progressives did much to reform America’s cities but were less effective in aiding America’s farmers and minorities.
Key Events and Terms:
1. Social Gospel Movement: movement origination in the Protestant church that aimed to help the urban poor; many progressives were influenced by this movement.
2. Muckrakers: writers who exposed unethical practices in both government and business during this era; newspaper editors discovered that these types of stories increased circulation.
3. Seventeenth Amendment (1913):U.S. Constitutional amendment that allowed voters instead of state legislature to elect U.S. senators, this amendment had been championed by progressives.
4. Referendum process: this process allowed citizen to vote on proposed laws
5. Recall Process: This process allowed voters to remove an elected official from office before his or her term expired.
6. Direct Primary: this process allowed party members to vote for prospective candidates; previously most had been chosen by political bosses.
7. Hull House: Settlement House in Chicago founded by Jane Adaam; Hull House became a model of settlement houses around the country. Settlement Houses help assimilate immigrants to America culture.
8. National American Woman Suffrage Association: Created in 1890 by a merger of two women suffrage organizations and led in its early years by Elizabeth Cady Staton and Susan B. Anthony; was instrument in demanding women’s right to vote. (19th Amendment)
9. Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (1911): fire in New York City that killed 150 females factory workers. It was later found that the worker had been locked into the factory; as a result many factory reforms were enacted.
10. The Jungle: Novel written by Upton Sinclair that highlighted numerous problem of the meat-packing industry and inspired that Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act.
11. Square Deal: President Roosevelt domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection these three demands are often referred to as the "three C's" of Roosevelt's Square Deal.
Time Line:
1889: Formation of National American Women Suffrage Association Founded
1901: Theodore Roosevelt becomes president after the assassination of William McKinley
Progressive Robert La Follette elected as governor of Wisconsin
1904: The Shame of the Cities by Steffen published
1906: The Jungle by Upton Sinclair published
Meat Inspection Act
Pure Food and Drug Act enacted
1908: Will Howard Taft Elected
1909: Foundation of the NAACP
1911: Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
1912: Progressive party (Bull Moose Part) founded by Theodore Roosevelt
Woodrow Wilson is elected President

Which of these was a major goal of Jane Addams’s Settlement House movement in Chicago?
a. The founding of women’s colleges
b. The introduction of prison reform
c. The assimilation of immigrants
d. The establishment of public libraries

How did the publication of Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle contribute to a change in the relationship between government and business?
a. Federal troops were mobilized to break strikes by labor unions.
b. Government regulations requiring the inspection of food products were implemented.
c. Congress created a regulatory agency to audit railroads.
d. Laws were enacted that banned private companies from discriminating when hiring.

The opponents of . . . recall, however they may phrase their opposition, in reality
believe the people can not be trusted. On the other hand, those of us who espouse these
measures do so because of our deep-rooted belief in popular government, and not only in
the right of the people to govern, but in their ability to govern; and this leads us logically
to the belief that if the people have the right, the ability, and the intelligence to elect, they
have as well the right, ability, and intelligence to reject or to recall. . . .
— California governor Hiram Johnson, inaugural address, 1911

The reform discussed by Governor Johnson in this excerpt —
a. required elected officials to communicate regularly with the public
b. provided citizens with more resources to run for office
c. made elected officials more directly accountable to their constituents
d. created new eligibility requirements for candidates for public office

In the United States during the early part of the twentieth century, reform writers helped to bring about passage of federal legislation designed to
a. increase immigration.
b. protect the consumer.
c. encourage the growth of corporations.
d. sell public lands to private developers.

A person who believes in the Social Darwinist theory of survival of the fittest would agree that
a. poor people should get help from the government.
b. rich nations should give substantial aid to help poor nations.
c. individuals should succeed through their own efforts.
d. government should tax the rich to help the poor.

Which action was necessary to change from the indirect to the direct election of United States Senators?
a. ratification of a constitutional amendment
b. passage of a Federal law
c. a Supreme Court decision
d. a national referendum

Imperialism Era: (1890-1913)
Beginning in the 1890s, the United States began to practice some of the same imperialistic policies that had previously criticized major European powers for. Spurred on by sugar planters, America expanded its influence in Hawaii and in 1896 annexed the islands. Americans also pushed for an “Open Door” trading policy in China. Efforts to expand American influenced abroad were motivated by economic political, religious and social factors; the “white man’s burden” argument was influential in both Europe and the United States. There were also opponents in imperialism who often based their opposition on moral grounds. American imperialistic impulses flourished during the Spanish-American War; newly created American naval power was one important factor in defeat of Spain. After contentious debate in the United States, American finally decided to annex the Philippines; it took three years for American forces to defeat Filipino rebels, who instead of fighting the Spanish now resisted their new occupiers, the Americans. American finished building the Panama Canal in 1914; the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine further increased American influence in Latin America.
Events and Term Know:
1. Open Door Policy: Policy supported by the United States beginning in 1899 that stated that all major powers, including the United States, should have an equal right to trade in China.
2. Social Darwinism: philosophy that emerged from the writings of Charles Darwin on the “survival of the fittest” this was used to justify the vast differences between the rich and the poor in the late nineteenth century as well as American and European imperialistic ventures.
3. Spanish American War: war that began in 1898 against the Spanish over treatment of Cubans by Spanish troops that controlled the island. As a result of this war. The United States annexed the Philippines, making America a major power in the Pacific. After the Treaty of Paris was sign which ended the Spanish American war, America received Puerto Rico, and Guam as territories.
4. Yellow Journalism: a method of journalism that utilizes sensationalized accounts of the news to sell newspapers; this approach helped to hype up nationalistic impulses that led the Spanish American War.
5. USS Maine: U.S. naval ship that sank in Havana harbor in February 1898 following an explosion; the incident was used to increase calls for war against Spain. It was never definitively determined why or how the ship was sank.
6. Panama Canal: Canal across the Panama isthmus that was begun in 1904 and completed in 1914, its opening enabled America to expand its economic and military influence.
7. Roosevelt Corollary (1904): policy that warned European against intervening in the affairs of Latin America and that claimed the right of the United States to intervene in the affairs of Latin America nations if “chronic wrongdoing” was taking place.
People to Know:
1. Alfred T Mahan: Wrote the book “The Influence of Sea Power upon History.”
1. Queen Liliuokalani: Queen of Hawaii who force off her throne, thus allowing Hawaii to be annexed into the U.S.
3. Henry Cabot Lodge: supported American Expansion as a way to increase national pride, spread civilization and gain world power.
4. William Randolph Hearst: Owner of the New York Journal (yellow Journalism)
5. Joseph Pulitzer: Owner of the New York World (Yellow Journalism)
6. Theodore Roosevelt: Member of the Rough Riders. He was in charge of the “Charge up San Juan Hill”. Later on became the President of the U.S.
Time Line:
1867: United States purchased Alaska from Russia
United States annexes Midway Islands
1871: Beginning of European “Scramble for Africa
1875: Trade agreement between United States and Hawaii signed
1885: Publication of Our Country by Josiah Strong; book discusses role of Anglo-Saxon in the world
1890: Captain Alfred T. Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History published
1893: Pro-American sugar planters overthrow Queen Liliuokalani in Hawaii
1865: Revolt against Spanish in Cuba/ harsh Spanish reaction angers many in United States
1898: Explosion of the USS Maine in Havana harbor: beginning of the Spanish-American War Annexation
of Hawaii receive final approval from Congress.
1899: Secretary of State John Hay asks European leader for an Open Door policy in China
1900: Naval Act of 1900 authorizes construction of offensive warship requested by navy
1901: Assassination of President McKinley: Theodore Roosevelt become President
1904: Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine announced
United States begins construction of Panama Canal
1914: Panama Canal is complete

To His Excellency William McKinley, President, and the Senate, of the United States of
America . . We, the undersigned, native Hawaiian citizens . . . who are members of the Hawaiian Patriotic League of the Hawaiian Islands, and others who are in sympathy with the said League, earnestly protest against the . . . [addition] of the said Hawaiian Islands to the
said United States of America in any form or shape.
— Petition, 1897

What were these Hawaiian citizens protesting?
a. The forced annexation of the islands as a U.S. territory after the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy
b. The classification of the islands as a protectorate after the Hawaiian government signed a treaty with the United States
c. The granting of U.S. statehood to the islands after they were purchased from the Hawaiian monarch
d. The colonization of the islands by political refugees from the United States

Chronic wrongdoing, . . . which results in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing . . . to the exercise of an international police power.
—President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904

President Roosevelt issued this statement in response to —
a. the construction of a canal in Panama
b. the threat of European intervention in Latin America
c. Spanish efforts to suppress a rebellion in Cuba
d. public outcry regarding war between Russia and Japan

Statement 1: The U.S. oil industry boomed due to oil deposits found in conquered territories.
Statement 2: Rebuilding its devastated army cost the United States an enormous amount of money.
Statement 3: The acquisition of new territories allowed for the expansion of U.S. commercial trade.
Statement 4: Territorial losses forced the United States to purchase expensive natural resources from other countries.

a. Statement 1
b. Statement 2
c. Statement 3
d. Statement 4

The term yellow journalism refers to
a. the publication of the comic strip "The Yellow Kid."
b. the introduction of a new, yellow-tinted paper for newsprint.
c. printing sensational stories designed to sell newspapers.
d. a strict code of journalistic ethics that prevents stories from being exaggerated.

The Rough Riders were
a. a traveling group of performers who put on a "wild West" show in the mid-1800s.
b. a regiment of volunteer soldiers under Leonard Wood who fought in the Spanish-American War.
c. a regiment of soldiers under Teddy Roosevelt who fought in the Philippines War.
d. none of the above

The desire of the United States to join the Atlantic and Pacific oceans led to
a. the annexation of Nicaragua.
b. the creation of the Panama Canal.
c. the election of Teddy Roosevelt as president.
d. all of the above

World War I (1914-1918)
The United States was officially neutral in the first two year of the World War I; in 1916, one of President Woodrow Wilson’s campaign slogans was “he kept us out of war.” However, America was soon drawn into the conflict on the side of the British and French against the Germans (and Austro-Hungarians). The 1915 sinking of the British passenger ship
the Lusitania
infuriated many Americas, as did the publication of the Zimmerman Telegram, in which Germany tried to entice Mexico to go to war against the United States. In January of 1917 Germany announced a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, and several American ships were sunk. These events caused President Wilson to call for a declaration of war against Germany. American entry into the war was a tremendous psychological lift for the British and the French. On the American home front, the government imposed unprecedented controls on the economy and on the spreading of news. The war ended with an armistice in November 1918. At the subsequent Paris Peace Conference, Wilson attempted to convince the Allies to accept his peace plan, called the “Fourteen Points.” Britain and France were generally not enthusiastic about Wilson’s proposals, but they did support the creation of a League of Nations. However the League was opposed by isolationist members of the U.S. Senate, and the United States never became a member of the League. Instead U.S. foreign policy became isolationist and remained largely so through the 1930s.
Key Words and Events:
1. Allied Powers: (Triple Entente) Britain, France, Russia and U.S.
2. Central Powers: (Triple Alliance) Germany, Austria-Hungry and Italy
3. Nationalism: feeling of intense pride of one’s home land.
4. Lusitania: British Passenger ship that was fired on killing American bound to England.
5. Sussex Pledge: the German promised to sink no more ships without prior warning. The action described caused public opinion in the United States to increase in favor of the Allies.
6. Zimmerman Telegram: This was an intercepted message between Arthur Zimmerman, the German Foreign minister and German officials in Mexico, suggestion that when Germany goes to war with the U.S. the Mexicans should be persuaded to attack the United Stat as well. As a reward the Mexican would receive Texas, New Mexico and Arizona after the United States was defeated.
7. Trench Warfare: a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other. This produced a stalemate between the two sides.
8. American Expeditionary Force: (doughboys) American force of 14,500 men that landed in France in June 1917 under the command of General John J. Pershing. Both women and blacks served in the American Army during the war although black units were segregated and usually had white officers.
9. Espionage Act on 1917: This established penalties and prison terms for anyone who gave aid to the enemy during war time.
10. Sedition Act of 1918: expanded the meaning of the Espionage Act to make illegal any public expression of opposition to the war. Breaking the 1st Amendment.
11. Fourteen Points: plan for the postwar world that Woodrow Wilson brought to the Paris Peace Conferences; Wilson’s plan proposed open treaties, freedom of seas, arm reduction and a League of Nations. Britain and France were openly suspicious of the plans, but they supported the creation of the League of Nations.
12. League of Nations: The world body proposed by Woodrow Wilson as part of his 14-points peace plan. The League was created but without the participation of Germany, the Soviet Union, and United States (isolationists in the Senate ensured that the treaty creating the League was never signed) As a result, the League remained a relatively ineffective body throughout its existence.
13. Bolsheviks: groups of Communist soon competed for power in Russia. In 1917 Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the power overthrew the Czar of Russia. Shortly after gaining power Lenin withdrew Russia from WWI.
14. Treaty of Versailles: Treaty that Ended WWI.
People To Know:
1. Archduke Franz Ferdinand: In an event that widely acknowledge to have sparked the outbreak of WWI Archduke Franz Ferdinand, nephew of Emperor Franz Josef and heir to the Austo-Hungarian Empire, is shot to death along with his wife by Serbian nationalist.
2. Black Hand: Serbian terrorist organization responsible for the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
3. Woodrow Wilson: president of the U.S. during WWI. Also the creator of the 14 points.
4. John J. Pershing: commander of the American Expeditionary Forces.
5. Alvin York: was the most decorated American soldier in World War I. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a German machine gun nest, taking 32 machine guns, killing 28 German soldiers and capturing 132 others. This action occurred during the U.S.-led portion of the Meuse-Argonne
Time Line:

1914: Outbreak of World War I in Europe
Woodrow Wilson officially proclaim American neutrality in World War I
National Security League founded to prepare America for War
1915: Sinking of the Lusitania by German U-boat
1916: Germany torpedoes Sussex, and then promises to warn merchant ships if they are to be attacked
Woodrow Wilson reelected with the campaign slogan of “He kept us out of war.”
1917: Zimmerman Telegram
Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare
Russian Revolution
U.S. enter WWI
Conscription begins in the U.S.
American Expeditionary Force lands in France
1918: Military success by American Expeditionary Force at Chateau-Thierry
Sedition Act passed
Wilson announce 14 points
Armistice ends WW1 (November 11, 1918)
1919: Paris Peace Conference creates Treaty of Versailles
Wilson suffers a stroke during speaking tour promoting Treaty of Versailles
Senate rejects League of Nations proposal.

Review Questions:
Upon entering World War I, the United States enlarged its military by —
a. creating the Veterans Administration
b. passing the Selective Service Act
c. enacting the GI Bill
d. establishing the Marine Corps

Soldiers dug Trenches
Stalemate developed along the
western front
Which action completes this diagram?
a. Submarines attacked unarmed ships.
b. Armored tanks crossed fortified lines.
c. The use of machine guns resulted in massive casualties.
d. Airplanes conducted reconnaissance missions.

General John J. Pershing made a major contribution to the Allied victory in World War I by —
a. transforming inexperienced troops into an effective military force
b. developing advanced technologies for battlefield use
c. requesting humanitarian aid from Congress for war-torn countries
d. negotiating the terms of the Treaty of Versailles

How did the Zimmermann telegram influence U.S. entry into World War I?
a. It announced the czar’s overthrow in Russia.
b. It revealed a proposed military alliance between Mexico and Germany.
c. It contained orders for German U-boats to destroy British passenger ships.
d. It described Romania’s plan to abandon neutrality.

President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points were intended to
a. make the United States, Great Britain, and France into leading world powers
b. redistribute Germany’s colonies among the Allied nations
c. prevent international tensions from leading to war
d. punish Germany for causing World War I

Which action best demonstrated the United States effort to isolate itself from European conflicts after World War I?

a. lowering tariff rates
b. attempting to improve relations with Asia
c. failing to sign international disarmament agreements
d. refusing to join the League of Nations

William Jennings Bryant:
Important politician of the time, supported prohibition, women’s rights, income tax. Gave famous “Cross of Gold” speech attaching tariffs. Prosecuted John Scopes in the “Monkey Trial” for teaching evolution.
2. Ida B. Wells: was an African-American journalist, newspaper editor, suffragist, sociologist and, with her husband, newspaper owner Ferdinand L. Barnett, an early leader in the civil rights movement. She documented lynching in the United States, showing how it was often a way to control or punish blacks who competed with whites. She was active in women's rights and the women's suffrage movement, establishing several notable women's organizations. Wells was a skilled and persuasive rhetorician, and traveled internationally on lecture tours.
3. W.E.B Du Bois: Early civil rights leader Published “The Souls of Black Folks” in 1903 and helped found the NAACP in 1909. Advocated for Pan-Africanism (all African descent people should fight oppression together), eventually left NAACP and believed in black separatism.
4. Jacob Riis: author of “How the other Half lives.”

5. Robert La Follette: was an American Republican (and later a Progressive) politician. He served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, was the Governor of Wisconsin, and was also a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin (1906 to 1925). He ran for President of the United States as the nominee of his own Progressive Party in 1924, carrying Wisconsin and 17% of National popular vote. Direct Primary.
6. Alice Paul: American suffragist Alice Paul (1885-1977) was born into a prominent Quaker family in New York . While attending a training England, she became active with the country’s radical suffragists. After two years with the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), she cofounded the Congressional Union and then formed the National Woman’s party in 1916. Drawing on her experience, Paul led demonstrations and was subjected to imprisonment as she sought a voting amendment, but her actions helped bring about the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920. Paul continued to push for equal rights and worked from National Woman’s party headquarters in Washington, D.C., until her later years.
7. Upton Sinclair: “The Jungle”, by Upton Sinclair published which help Congress pass the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act enacted.
The Roaring Twenties: (1920-1929)
During the 1920s, Americans created a consumer culture in which automobiles, home appliances and other goods were purchased at an unprecedented rate. Advertising helpedto fuel this desire to purchase, and the popularity of radio and motion pictures helped to create a more uniform national culture. However, many small town and rural Americans never felt totally comfortable with the values of the consumer-oriented, more urban “modern” America that they saw threatening their way of life. The conflict between urban and small-town American values manifested in numerous ways: many in small-town America supported the Prohibition amendment banning alcohol, while many American cities tried to get around it. Many in small-town America feared immigration, while many American cities contained immigrant enclaves. Many in small-town America still opposed the teaching of evolution, while many urban newspapers mocked their views. The flappers and a more relaxed sense of morality were symbols of the Jazz Age; generally, these symbols were harder to find in small-town America. All Americans did rally around two heroes of the age: aviator Charles Lindbergh and home run hitter Babe Ruth.
Key Events and Terms:
Teapot Dome: major scandal in the scandal –ridden administration of President Warren Harding; Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall had two oil deposits put under the jurisdiction of the Department of Interior and leased them to private companies in return for large sums of money.
Red Scare: after WWI, fear of the spread of communism in the United States.
Palmer Raids: as a part of the Red Scare, in these 1919-1920 raids thousands of Americans not born in the U.S. were arrested, and hundreds were sent back to their country of origin.
Scopes Trail (1925): trial of teacher John Scopes of Dayton, Tennessee, for the teaching of evolution; during this trial, lawyers Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan squared off on the teaching of Darwin versus the teaching of the Bible. (modernism vs. traditionalism)
Jazz Age: an image of the 1920s that emphasized the more relaxed social attitudes of decade; F. Scott Fitzgerald’s “The Great Gatsby” is seen by many as the novel that best depicts this view.
6. “Lost Generation”: the group of post-World War I writers who in their works express the dissatisfaction with mainstream American culture. A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway is a novel that is represented of the works of these writers.
7. Harlem Renaissance: the 1920s black literacy and cultural movement that produced many works depicting the roles of blacks in contemporary American Society; Zora Neal Hurston and Langston Hughes were key member of this movement.
8. Speakeasies: also called a blind pig or blind tiger, is an establishment that illegally sells alcoholic beverages. Such establishments came into prominence in the United States during the Prohibition Era.
Prohibition: The ratification of the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution–which banned the manufacture, transportation and sale of intoxicating liquors–ushered in a period in American history known as Prohibition. The result of a widespread temperance movement during the first decade of the 20th century, Prohibition was difficult to enforce, despite the passage of companion legislation known as the Volstead Act. The increase of the illegal production and sale of liquor (known as “bootlegging”), the proliferation of speakeasies (illegal drinking spots) and the accompanying rise in gang violence (organized crime) and other crimes led to waning support for Prohibition by the end of the 1920s. In early 1933, Congress adopted a resolution proposing a 21st Amendment to the Constitution that would repeal the 18th. It was ratified by the end of that year, bringing the Prohibition era to a close.
10. Great Migration: The Great Migration, or the relocation of more than 6 million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North, Midwest and West from 1916 to 1970, had a huge impact on urban life in the United States. Driven from their homes by unsatisfactory economic opportunities and harsh segregationist laws, many blacks headed north, where they took advantage of the need for industrial workers that first arose during the First World War. As Chicago, New York and other cities saw their black populations expand exponentially, migrants were forced to deal with poor working conditions and competition for living space, as well as widespread racism and prejudice. During the Great Migration, African Americans began to build a new place for themselves in public life, actively confronting economic, political and social challenges and creating a new black urban culture that would exert enormous influence in the decades to come.
People To Know:

Flappers: The most familiar symbol of the “Roaring Twenties” is probably the flapper: a young woman with bobbed hair and short skirts, who drank, smoked and said what might be termed “unladylike” things, in addition to being more sexually “free” than previous generations.
2. Sacco and Vanzetti: In 1921, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, both Italian-Americans, were convicted of robbery and murder. Although the arguments brought against them were mostly disproven in court, the fact that the two men were known radicals (and that their trial took place during the height of the Red Scare) prejudiced the judge and jury against them. On April 9, 1927's Sacco and Vanzetti’s final appeal was rejected, and the two were sentenced to death.
3. F. Scott Fitzgerald: author of “Great Gatsby”.
4. Ernest Hemingway: famous author and important member of “The Lost Generation”.
5. Zora Neal Hurston: is considered one of the pre-eminent writers of twentieth-century and African-American literature. Hurston was closely associated with the Harlem Renaissance.
6. Langston Hughes: Langston Hughes was first recognized as an important literary figure during the 1920s, a period known as the "Harlem Renaissance" because of the number of emerging black writers.
Time Line:
1917: Race riots in St. Louis
1918: Armistice ending WWI
1919: Race riots in Chicago
Major strikes in Seattle and Boston
Palmer Raids
1920: Warren Harding elected president
First broadcast of Radio Station KDKA in Pittsburgh
Publication of Main Street by Sinclair Lewis
Arrest of Socco and Vanzetti
Prohibition takes effect
1921: Immigration Quota Law passed
1923: Teapot Dome
Death of Harding: Calvin Coolidge becomes president
Duke Ellington first preforms in New York City
1925: Publication of “The Great Gatsby” by F. Scott Fitzgerald
Scopes Trial
1927: The Jazz Singer, first movie with sound, released
Charles Lindbergh makes New York to Paris flight
Execution of Sacco and Vanzetti
Babe Ruth hit 60 Home Runs
1928: Election of Herbert Hoover
1929: Nearly 30 million Americans have cars
Stock Market Crashed

Review Questions:
During the 1920s, what was one result of innovations in U.S. transportation technology?
a. Commercial airplanes replaced ocean liners as the primary means of travel to Europe.
b. Mass-produced automobiles made travel more affordable for many people.
c. Cable cars provided a comfortable means of quick travel to any city within a state.
d. Container ships delivered agricultural goods to ports along the Pacific coast.

Which of the following BEST describes a flapper?
a. A woman who campaigned for the legalization of the "Moral Gown"
b. A modest women who obeyed her parent
c. A women who thought men should stay home and women should dominate the workforce
d. A rebellious woman who wanted to drink, smoke, and have a good time

Which amendment to the Constitution made alcohol illegal?
a. 18th
b. 19th
c. 20th
d. 21th

The Harlem Renaissance writers, artists, and musicians emphasized:
a. relief for African-Americans from white oppression
b. assimilation into white culture
c. the richness and variety of African-American culture
d. African-Americans moving South to a more tolerant atmosphere

The Lost Generation refers to 1920's writers who were fearful that society had become:
a. wealthy and snotty
b. greedy and traditional
c. lazy and slothfulness
d. promiscuous and materialistic

Both the Palmer Raids and the Sacco and Vanzetti case demonstrated how:
a. Christian fundamentalism had permeated society
b. technology was improving the quality of life
c. the Red Scare provoked injustice
d. Americans were beginning to embrace the modern

Great Depression: 1929-1941
The Great Depression had a monumental effect on American society, and effects are still felt today. Franklin Roosevelt, the architect of the New Deal, is considered by many to be one of America’s greatest presidents, and he was the model for activist presidents who desired to utilize the power of the federal government to assist those in need. The origins of the Great Depression can be found in economic problems in America in the late 1920s: “installment buying” and buying stocks “on margin” would come back to haunt many homeowners and investors. The stock market crash of 1929 was followed by bank failures, factory closings and wide spread unemployment. President Herbert Hoover believed that voluntary action by business and labor interest could pull America out of its economic doldrums. Franklin Roosevelt was elected to president in 1932 with the promise of a “New Deal” for American people. During his first hundred days in office Roosevelt acted forcefully to restore confidence in the bank, stabilized prices, and gave many young people work through the establishment of the Civilian Conservation Corps. During the Second New Deal later in 1930s, measures such as the Social Security Act were enacted to provide a safety net for Americans in need. Some critics of the New Deal branded it socialism; others said it didn’t go far enough to fight poverty in America. New Deal policies never ended the Great Depression; America entry into World War II did.
Terms and Events to Know:
1. Hoovervilles: settlements of shacks found on the outskirts of many American cities beginning in the early 1930s. These settlements got their name for the President during the beginning of the Great Depression.
2. Dust Bowl: the name given in the 1930s to regions of Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, and Texas, where severe drought and poor farming practices caused massive dust storms. By the end of the decade, nearly 60 percent of all the farms there were either ruined or abandoned.
3. Hawley-Smoot Tariff: a tax imposed on severe tariffs on all incoming goods; European countries responded with their own high tariffs.
4. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC): federal agency established during the “First Hundred Days” of the New Deal in 1933 in an effort to halt panic over bank closing. This agency insures the bank deposits of individual citizens.
5. Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC): also established in 1933, this plan provided jobs for 2.5 million young Americans in forestry and conservation programs.
6. Works Progress Administration (WPA): New Deal program that employed nearly eight million Americas. WPA projects included the construction of schools and roads. Unemployed artist and musicians were also employed by the WPA.
6. Works Progress Administration (WPA): New Deal program that employed nearly eight million Americas. WPA projects included the construction of schools and roads. Unemployed artist and musicians were also employed by the WPA.
7. Social Security Act 1935: New Deal Legislation providing pensions for workers reaching retirement age. Both worker and employees pay into the fund that provides this benefit.
8. Margin: using borrowed money to purchase stock. Investors would put 10% down on the stock. Then investors would pay the remaining 90% when they sold their stock for a profit.
9. Black Tuesday: took place on October 29, 1929 and was when the price of stocks completely collapsed. It was because of this day that the Roaring Twenties came to a sudden halt and, in its place, was the Great Depression.
10. Fire Side Chats: From March 1933 to June 1944, Roosevelt addressed the American people in some 30 speeches broadcasted via radio, speaking on a variety of topics from banking to unemployment to fighting fascism in Europe. Millions of people found comfort and renewed confidence in these speeches, which became known as the “Fire Side Chats."
11. Tennessee Valley Authority: agency created in the New Deal to oversee the construction of dams, providing electricity and flood control for many in the Tennessee River Valley; for many in the region, the was the first time their homes had electricity.
12. Hoover Dam: Hoover Dam spans the Colorado River in Black Canyon between Arizona and Nevada, some 30 miles southeast of Las Vegas Nevada. Constructed in the 1930s, the concrete arch-gravity structure was intended to prevent flooding as well as provide much-needed irrigation and hydroelectric power to arid regions of states like California and Arizona. It was originally known as Boulder Dam, but was renamed in 1947 in honor of Herbert Hoover, who as U.S. secretary of commerce and the 31st U.S. president proved instrumental in getting the dam built. At 726 feet high and 1,244 feet long, Hoover Dam was one of the largest man-made structures in the world at the time of its construction, and one of the world’s largest producers of hydroelectric power.
13. Bonus Army: The Bonus Army was the popular name of an assembly of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates. Its organizers called it the Bonus Expeditionary Force to echo the name of World War I's American Expeditionary Force, while the media called it the Bonus March. It was led by Walter W. Waters, a former Army sergeant.
14. New Deal: The Great Depression in the United States began on October 29, 1929, a day known forever after as “Black Tuesday,” when the American stock market–which had been roaring steadily upward for almost a decade–crashed, plunging the country into its most severe economic downturn yet. Speculators lost their shirts; banks failed; the nation’s money supply diminished; and companies went bankrupt and began to fire their workers in droves. Meanwhile, President Herbert Hoover urged patience and self-reliance: He thought the crisis was just “a passing incident in our national lives” that it wasn’t the federal government’s job to try and resolve. By 1932, one of the bleakest years of the Great Depression, at least one-quarter of the American workforce was unemployed. When President Franklin Roosevelt took office in 1933, he acted swiftly to try and stabilize the economy and provide jobs and relief to those who were suffering. Over the next eight years, the government instituted a series of experimental projects and programs. Known collectively as the New Deal, that aimed to restore some measure of dignity and prosperity to many Americans. More than that, Roosevelt’s New Deal permanently changed the federal government’s relationship to the U.S. populace.
15. Gold Standard: the United States went off the gold standard, a monetary system in which currency is backed by gold, when Congress enacted a joint resolution nullifying the right of creditors to demand payment in gold. United States had been on a gold standard since 1879, except for an embargo on gold exports during World War I, but bank failures during the Great Depression of the 1930s frightened the public into hoarding gold, making the policy weak.
16. Court Packing: On February 5, 1937, President Franklin Roosevelt announced a controversial plan to expand the Supreme Court to as many as 15 judges, allegedly to make it more efficient. Critics immediately charged that Roosevelt was trying to "pack" the court and thus neutralize Supreme Court justices hostile to his New Deal.
Roots of the Great Depression:
a) Agriculture Problems: Farm prices were at a record high during WW1, but dropped after the war and never recovered. Many farmers were unable to pay back bank loans they had acquired to purchase land, tractors, and other equipment; many farms were foreclosed and in farm states, over 6200 banks were forced to close
b) Installment Buying: Large number of Americans purchased automobiles, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, and similar household products on credit. Many Americans simply did not have enough cash to pay for all they had purchased.
c) Uneven Distribution of Wealth: The gains made by wealthy American in the 1920s far exceeded gains made by the working class. By the time of the stock market crash, the upper 0.2% of the population control over 40% of the nation’s savings. On the other had the other three quarters of families made less $3000 a year. Problems that could develop from this situation were obvious. The bottom three-quarters of families were too poor to purchase much to help the economy to continue to flourish
d) Stock Market Crash: There were cases in the late 1920s of ordinary citizens becoming very wealthy by purchasing stock. Some of these people were engaged in speculation, meaning that they would invest in some things that was very risky, but that they could potentially “make a killing” on. Another common practice in the late 1920s was buying “on the margin.” A stockbroker might allow a buyer to purchase stock for only a percentage of what is was worth (commonly as low as 10%); the rest could be borrowed from the broker. As long as the stock prices continued to rise, investors would have no problem paying brokers back for these loans. After the stock market crash, brokers wanted payment for these loans. Countless number of investors had no way to make these payments.

People to Know:
1. Herbert Hoover: (1874-1964), America’s 31st president, took office in 1929, the year the U.S. economy plummeted into the Great Depression. Although his predecessors’ policies undoubtedly contributed to the crisis, which lasted over a decade, Hoover bore much of the blame in the minds of the American people. As the Depression deepened, Hoover failed to recognize the severity of the situation or leverage the power of the federal government to squarely address it. A successful mining engineer before entering politics, the Iowa-born president was widely viewed as callous and insensitive toward the suffering of millions of desperate Americans. As a result, Hoover was soundly defeated in the 1932 presidential election by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945).
2. Franklin D. Roosevelt: Franklin D. Roosevelt was in his second term as governor of New York when he was elected as the nation’s 32nd president in 1932. With the country stalled in the depths of the Great Depression, Roosevelt immediately acted to restore public confidence, proclaiming a bank holiday and speaking directly to the public in a series of radio broadcasts or “fireside chats.” His ambitious slate of New Deal programs and reforms redefined the role of the federal government in the lives of Americans. Reelected by comfortable margins in 1936, 1940 and 1944, FDR led the United States from isolationism to victory over Nazi Germany and its allies in World War II. He spearheaded the successful wartime alliance between Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States and helped lay the groundwork for the post-war peace organization that would become the United Nations. The only American president in history to be elected four times, Roosevelt died in office in April 1945.
3. Eleanor Roosevelt: First lady Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962), wife of Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945), the U.S. president from 1933 to 1945, was a leader in her own right and involved in numerous humanitarian causes throughout her life. The niece of President Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), Eleanor was born into a wealthy New York family. She married Franklin Roosevelt, her fifth cousin once removed, in 1905. By the 1920s, Roosevelt, who raised five children, was involved in Democratic Party politics and numerous social reform organizations. In the White House, she was one of the most active first ladies in history and worked for political, racial and social justice. After President Roosevelt’s death, Eleanor was a delegate to the United Nations and continued to serve as an advocate for a wide range of human right issues. She remained active in Democratic causes and was a prolific writer until her death at age 78.
4. John Steinbeck: 1940, John Steinbeck is awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his novel “The Grapes of Wrath”. The book traces the fictional Joad family of Oklahoma as they lose their family farm and move to California in search of a better life. They encounter only more difficulties and a downward slide into poverty. The book combines simple, plain-spoken language and compelling plot with rich description. One of Steinbeck's most effective works of social commentary, the novel also won the National Book Award
Time Line:
1929: Stock Market Crash
1930: Hawley-Smoot Tariff enacted
1931: Ford plants in Detroit shut down
1932: Bonus marcher routed from Washington D.C.
Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president
1933: Emergency Banking Relief Act enacted
Prohibition Ended (21st Amendment)
Agricultural Adjustment Act enacted
National Industrial Recover Act enacted
Civilian Conservation Corps established
Tennessee Valley Authority formed
1934: American unemployment reaches highest point
1935: Beginning of the Second New Deal
Works Progress Administration established
Social Security Act enacted
Wagner Act enacted
1936: Franklin Roosevelt reelected
1937: Recession of 1937 begins
Roosevelt’s plan to expand the Supreme Court defeated
1939: Gone with the wind published
The Grapes of Wrath published

Review Questions:
Why did the federal government create this program in 1933?
a. To establish industrial centers in the region
b. To promote organic farming practices
c. To offset the effects of urbanization and rapid population growth
d. To provide jobs and improve the regional standard of living

For the purpose of enabling each State to furnish financial assistance, as far as practicable under the conditions in such State, to aged needy individuals, there is hereby authorized to be appropriated . . . for each fiscal year a sum sufficient to carry out the purposes of this title.

—Social Security Act of 1935, Title 1, Section 1

How did the legislation excerpted above affect the relationship between the U.S. government and its citizens?
a. It allowed the government to tax investment income.
b. It allowed people to have more direct input in government decisions.
c. It made most people distrust the power of the government.
d. It made the government more responsible for the people’s economic welfare.

This satirical cartoon expresses a sentiment that eventually contributed to —
a. the passage of a federal statute prohibiting foreign companies from contributing to presidential campaigns
b. the issuance of a Supreme Court ruling declaring it unconstitutional for members of the same political party to serve consecutive terms as president
c. the establishment of a congressional committee to investigate private presidential conduct
d. the ratification of a constitutional amendment establishing term limits for presidents

The Federal Housing Administration is a New Deal agency that continues to assist many
Americans primarily by —
a. providing them with money to pay for moving expenses
b. helping them obtain mortgage loans from banks
c. helping them choose a reputable home builder
d. offering incentives for them to invest in rental properties

President Franklin D. Roosevelt sought to reassure the American public during uncertain economic times by —
a. publishing a weekly news editorial titled “The Road to Prosperity and Peace”
b. holding weekly town-hall meetings with average citizens
c. making short appearances in a variety of Hollywood films
d. delivering a series of evening radio speeches known as fireside chats

Last Thursday I described the American form of Government as a three horse team
provided by the Constitution to the American people so that their field might be plowed.
The three horses are, of course, the three branches of government—the Congress, the
Executive and the Courts. Two of the horses are pulling in unison today; the third is not.
—President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1937

Many members of Congress disagreed with President Roosevelt’s proposed solution to the problem described above because —

a. the Constitution required hearings to confirm judicial appointments
b. Supreme Court justices were subject to term limits
c. the power of the executive branch would increase
d. the time required for judicial proceedings would increase

World War II: (1939-1945)
Throughout the 1930s the United States followed a foreign policy based on isolationism, which emphasized non involvement in European affair. After Adolph Hitler became the Nazi dictator of Germany, some Americans believed that he was a reasonable man who could serve as a European protectorate against Stalin and the Soviet Union. After World War II began in Europe, President Roosevelt sensed that America would eventually be drawn into it and began Lend-Lease and other measures to help the British. The December 7, 1941, Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor mobilized American public opinion for war. America fought on two fronts during the war: against Germany and the Italians in Europe and against the Japanese in the Pacific. In Europe, U.S. forces and their British and Soviet allies eventually invaded Germany and crushed the Nazis. In the Pacific, superior American air and sea power led to the defeat of the Japanese. The decision to drop the atomic bomb on two Japanese cities is still considered controversial by some historians today; at the time, President Truman decided to drop the atomic bomb based on calculations of human cost of an American invasion of Japan. America contributed greatly to the war effort at home through rationing, working extra shifts, and the purchase of war bonds. As a result of World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the two major world powers.
Keywords and Events to Know:
1. Isolationism: American foreign policy of the 1920s and 1930s based on the belief that it was in the best interest of the United States not to become involved in foreign conflicts that do not directly threaten American interest.
2. Munich Agreement: settlement reached by Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy that permitted German annexation of the Sudetenland in western Czechoslovakia. After his success in absorbing Austria into Germany proper in March 1938, Adolf Hitler looked covetously at Czechoslovakia, where about three million people in the Sudeten area were of German origin. It became known in May 1938 that Hitler and his generals were drawing up a plan for the occupation of Czechoslovakia. The Czechoslovaks were relying on military assistance from France, with which they had an alliance. The Soviet Union also had a treaty with Czechoslovakia, and it indicated willingness to cooperate with France and Great Britain if they decided to come to Czechoslovakia’s defense, but the Soviet Union and its potential services were ignored throughout the crisis.
3. Appeasements: In May, 1937, Neville Chamberlain became prime minister of Great Britain. His program for dealing with Hitler was one of appeasement, that is, of attempting to meet German grievances in hopes of avoiding war. Hitler took advantage of this policy by annexing Austria on March 13, 1938. He then demanded the return to Germany of the Sudetenland, a part of Czechoslovakia inhabited largely by Germans. Czechoslovakia, assured by various treaties of the backing of France and the Soviet Union, prepared for war. To avoid a major European war that would eventually involve Britain, Chamberlain flew to Hitler's mountain home at Berchtesgaden with the hope of resolving the crisis. Hitler merely increased his demands. On September 29, 1938, Mussolini, Chamberlain, and Premier Edouard Daladier of France met with Hitler in Munich. Without consulting the Czechs or the Soviets, who were allied with the Czechs, they agreed to the German annexation of the Sudetenland and other border areas of Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain, convinced that this would satisfy Hitler, proclaimed the agreement to be a guarantee of "peace in our time."
4. Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact: On August 23, 1939, representatives from Nazi Germany and Soviet Union met and signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, which guaranteed that the two countries would not attack each other. By signing this pact, Germany had protected itself from having to fight a two-front war in the soon-to-begin World War II; the Soviet Union was awarded land, including parts of Poland and the Baltic States. The pact was broken when Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union less than two years later, on June 22, 1941.
5. Allied Powers: Britain, France, Russia and U.S.
6. Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan
7. Blitzkrieg: Blitzkrieg means "lightning war". Blitzkrieg was first used by the Germans in World War II. It was a tactic based on speed and surprise and needed a military force to be based around lighting tank units supported by planes and infantry (foot soldiers). The tactic was developed in Germany. As a tactic it was used to devastating effect in the first years of World War II.
8. Holocaust: The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community. During the era of the Holocaust, German authorities also targeted other groups because of their perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies), the disabled, and some of the Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others). Other groups were persecuted on political, ideological, and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and homosexuals
9. Nuremberg Laws: The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 deprived German Jews of their rights of citizenship, giving them the status of "subjects" in Hitler's Reich. The laws also made it forbidden for Jews to marry or have sexual relations with Aryans or to employ young Aryan women as household help. (An Aryan being a person with blond hair and blue eyes of Germanic heritage.)
10. Kristallnacht: On November 9 to November 10, 1938, in an incident known as “Kristallnacht”, Nazis in Germany torched synagogues, vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses and killed close to 100 Jews. In the aftermath of Kristallnacht, also called the “Night of Broken Glass,” some 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to Nazi concentration camps. German Jews had been subjected to repressive policies since 1933, when Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) became chancellor of Germany. However, prior to Kristallnacht, these Nazi policies had been primarily nonviolent. After Kristallnacht, conditions for German Jews grew increasingly worse. During World War II (1939-45), Hitler and the Nazis implemented their so-called “Final Solution” to what they referred to as the “Jewish problem,” and carried out the systematic murder of some 6 million European Jews in what came to be known as the Holocaust.
11. Final Solution: The Final Solution during the World War II refers to Nazi's plan to eliminate the Jews. The plan was lead by Adolf Hitler which results to holocaust. Around six million Jews were murdered by Nazi Germany because of this plan.
12. Lend Lease Act: Proposed in late 1940 and passed in March 1941, the Lend-Lease Act was the principal means for providing U.S. military aid to foreign nations during World War II. It authorized the president to transfer arms or any other defense materials for which Congress appropriated money to “the government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States.” By allowing the transfer of supplies without compensation to Britain, China, the Soviet Union and other countries, the act permitted the United States to support its war interests without being overextended in battle
13. December 7, 1941: just before 8 a.m. on December 7, 1941, hundreds of Japanese fighter planes attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor near Honolulu, Hawaii. The barrage lasted just two hours, but it was devastating: The Japanese managed to destroy nearly 20 American naval vessels, including eight enormous battleships, and almost 200 airplanes. More than 2,000 Americans soldiers and sailors died in the attack, and another 1,000 were wounded. The day after the assault, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan; Congress approved his declaration with just one dissenting vote. Three days later, Japanese allies Germany and Italy also declared war on the United States, and again Congress reciprocated. More than two years into the conflict, America had finally joined World War II.
14. Bataan Death March: After the April 9, 1942, U.S. surrender of the Bataan Peninsula on the main Philippine island of Luzon to the Japanese during World War II (1939-45), the approximately 75,000 Filipino and American troops on Bataan were forced to make an difficult 65-mile march to prison camps. The marchers made the trek in intense heat and were subjected to harsh treatment by Japanese guards. Thousands perished in what became known as the Bataan Death March.
15. Island Hopping: it was a method used by the American Forces to occupy one Island at a time towards Japan, which was the eventual goal.
16. Kamikaze: a member of a Japanese air attack corps in World War II assigned to make a suicidal crash on a target (as a ship).
17. Rosie the Riveter: figure that symbolized American working women during World War II. After the war, women were expected to return to more traditional roles.
18. Internment Camps: mandatory resettlement camps for Japanese-Americans from America’s West Coast, created in February 1942 during World War II by executive order 9066. The President that gave this order was Franklin D. Roosevelt.
19. Operation Overlord: the code name for the Invasion of Normandy. This battle also was the battle to free France it’s Nazi invaders.
20. V-E Day: Victory in Europe
21. V-J Day: Victory in Japan
22. Yalta Conference: Meeting held at Yalta in the Soviet Union between President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in February 1945; at this meeting critical decision on the future of post war Europe were made. At Yalta it was agree that Germany would be divided into four zones that free elections would take place after the war in Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union would join the War against Japan.
23. Manhattan Project: secret project to build and atomic bomb that began in Los Alamos, New Mexico, in August 1942; the first successful test of a atomic bomb took place on July 16, 1945.
24. United Nations: (UN) is an intergovernmental organization established on 24 October 1945 to promote international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was created following the Second World War to prevent another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193.
Major Battles:
1. Battle of Britain:
2. Battle of the Coral Sea:
3. The Battle of Midway:
4. Stalingrad:
5. D-Day:
6. Battle of the Bulge:
7. Okinawa and Iwo Jima:

People to Know:
1. Benito Mussolini: Leader of Italy during WW2.
2. Joseph Stalin: Communist Leader of Russia during WW2
3. Adolf Hitler: Leader of Germany.
4. Neville Chamberlain: Leader of Great Britain who was responsible for the Munich Agreement.
5. Franklin D. Roosevelt: President of the U.S. during WW2.
6. Winston Churchill: Leader of Great Britain during WW2.
7. Harry S. Truman: President after Franklin D. Roosevelt. Know for dropping the Atomic Bomb.
8. Dwight D. Eisenhower: 34th President. Prior to Presidency, served in WWII as commander of Allied Forces in North Africa, Sicily, and Italy. Promoted to General after D Day. Created the Interstate Highway System as President.
9. Omar Bradley: Commanded 1st US Army during D-Day Invasion, lead liberation of Paris, won the Battle of the Bulge.
10. George Patton: colorful and celebrated tank commander for the Third Armored Division who spearheaded the final attack into Germany in WWII.
11. Chester Nimitz: commander of the U.S. Navy and Allied land and sea forces in the Pacific in WWII
12. Douglas Mac Arthur: commander of the U.S. Army in the Pacific in WWII
13. Admiral Isoroku Yamaoto: was the a Japanese Marshal Admiral and the commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II.
Review Questions:
The government issued ration books during World War II in order to —
a. provide financial security for uninsured citizens
b. safeguard the profits of struggling businesses
c. ensure the fair distribution of scarce goods
d. allow consumers to buy imported goods at discounted rates

The skill and courage of the Tuskegee Airmen served to —
a. give the United States an advantage in military encryption
b. encourage immigrant enlistment in the U.S. Army during World War II
c. decrease opposition to integrating the armed forces
d. increase the number of women joining the U.S. military during World War II

What was the main effect of the event reported in this headline?
a. The Soviet Union invaded Japan to gain access to natural resources.
b. The United States initiated the Marshall Plan to help with the rebuilding of Japan.
c. Germany surrendered to the Allies and promised to help in the fight against Japan.
d. World War II ended with Japan surrendering to the Allies.

Many of the U.S. soldiers involved in the event mentioned in this headline —
a. remained in trenches and resisted the Japanese invasion
b. were exchanged for Japanese prisoners of war
c. escaped and were redeployed to the European theater
d. died during a forced march to a prison camp in the Philippines

The conflict is still sharpening throughout the world between two political systems. The
one system represents government by freedom of choice exercised by the individual
citizens. In the other, and opposing system, individual freedom and initiative are all made
subordinate to the totalitarian state.

—President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1938

What was the ultimate result of the situation President Roosevelt refers to in this excerpt?
a. A surge of social unrest in South America
b. The outbreak of World War II
c. A shift in favor of the policy of appeasement
d. The overthrow of the monarchy in Russia

THE COLD WAR (1950s -1991)

Even before the end of World War II, tensions began to develop in the wartime alliance between Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union. At the Yalta conference, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin had promised free elections in eastern European countries the Soviet Union liberated from Nazism; in the months after the war, it became obvious that these elections would not take place. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill warned that the Soviet Union was creating an “iron curtain” between Eastern and Western Europe; the United States began to follow policy of containment to stop the spread of communism. Through the Marshall Plan, the United States spent millions to rebuild Western Europe after the war. Stalin tested Western will by enforcing a blockade of Berlin in 1948; Western anxieties increased in 1949 when the Soviets announced that they had an atomic bomb and when communist forces led by Mao Zedong took power over mainland China. The Cold War had a major impact at home; the House Un-America Activities Committee (HUAC) began to search for communist in the entertainment industry, State Department official Alger Hiss was accused of being a communist spy and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed for giving atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. During the Korean War, United Nations and American forces were severely tested as they attempted to “contain communism” in Korea. Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed knowledge of communists in the State Department, the army and in other branches of government. Both the United States and the Soviet Union built up their military arsenals in the 1950s; by the end of the decade, President Eisenhower warned of the spreading “military-industrial complex.”

Keywords and Terms:
1. Satellite countries: Eastern European countries that came under the control of the Soviet Union after World War II; the Soviets argued that they had liberated these countries from the Nazi and thus they had the right to continue to influence developments there.
2. Iron Curtain: Term coined by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in a March 1946 speech in Fulton Missouri; Churchill forcefully proclaimed that the Soviet Union was establishing an “iron curtain” between the free countries and Western Europe and the communist-controlled countries of Eastern Europe.
3. Containment Policy: policy devised by American diplomat George F. Kennan; Kennan believed that the United States needed to implement long term military, economic, and diplomatic strategies in order to “contain” the spread of communism Kennan’s idea became official U.S. government policy in late 1940s.
4. Truman Doctrine: articulated in 1947, this policy stated that the United States would support any democratic nation that resisted communism. (South Korea, and South Vietnam)
5. Marshall Plan: American plan that spent $12 billion for the rebuilding of Western Europe after World War II; the plan produced an economic revival and helped stave off the growth of communist influence
6. Berlin Airlifts: American effort that flew in supplies to Western Berlin after the Soviet Union and the East Germany government blocked the roads to that city beginning in June 1948; American airplanes flew in supplies for 15 months, causing the Soviet Union to call off the blockade.
7. NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military alliance between the United States and Western European countries that was formed in April 1949.
8. Warsaw Pact: a military pact formed in 1955 between the Soviet Union and the Eastern European satellite countries.
9. HUAC: House Un-American Committee; in 1947 this committee began to investigate the entertainment industry for communist influences.
10. Blacklisted: list created by HUAC and various private agencies indicating individuals in the entertainment industry who might be communists or who might have been influenced by communists in the past; many individuals named to the blacklist could not find work in the industry until the 1960s.
11. McCarthyism: Term used to describe the accusation by Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy and his supporters in the early 1950s that certain people in the government, academia, and the arts were secret communists. McCarthy’s charges were largely unsubstantiated.
12. Domino theory: theory that if one country in a region fell under communist rule, then other countries in the region would follow; this theory would be used to justify American involvement in Vietnam.
13. Sputnik: the first artificial satellite, launched in 1957 by the Soviet Union; the fact that the Soviets launched a satellite before the United States shocked many in the American scientific community, thus creating more math and science class requirements in public schools.
Review Questions:
Senator Joseph McCarthy is best known for his involvement in —
a. the war effort of the 1940s
b. the Red Scare of the 1950s
c. the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s
d. the political scandals of the 1970s

Why did the United States adopt the motto In God We Trust in 1956?
a. To honor the financial and societal contributions of various religious organizations
b. To distinguish the nation from countries that restricted religious practices
c. To commemorate the social changes introduced by Christian leaders
d. To encourage the growth of religious institutions throughout the country

Special fabrics that keep the wearer cool

High-strength textiles made for
reentry parachutes

Sensors to detect biological traces on

Fabrics that block harmful ultraviolet rays

Bulletproof vests for law enforcement

Devices to monitor the presence of
contaminants in water

What is one way to describe the developments shown above?
a. Effects of programs to monitor national security
b. Conclusions from research conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency
c. Program results of the Federal Civil Defense Administration
d. Practical applications of technologies developed for spaceflight

During the 1950s the federal government funded educational initiatives in math and science
in response to —
a. the development of the ENIAC computer
b. the announcement of international education guidelines
c. the successful launch of the first artificial satellite
d. the discovery of new chemical elements

The events and consequences of the 1960s still have the ability to provoke contentious debate. Many claim the changes that came out of the decade have had a positive long-term effect on American society; for example, women’s rights and protection of the environment became popular caused during this period. Others point to destructive consequences of the decade, including the loosening of morality and excessive drug use, as more emblematic of the 1960s. The election of John Kennedy as president in 1960 caused many in America to feel optimistic about the future. But for some, Kennedy’s assassination in 1963 was a sign of the violence that would consume America later in the decade. The construction of the Berlin Wall, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Vietnam War were major foreign policy issues of the decade; opposition to the Vietnam War eventually drove President Lyndon Johnson from the White House. Blacks made many civil rights gains during the decade, but a number of younger blacks now called for “black power” rather than integration in white society. College and high school student became increasingly empowered in the decade, hundreds of thousands protested against the Vietnam War. While a number of student were increasingly involved in political affairs, other young people supported cultural instead of political revolution and became members of a widespread counterculture.
Keywords and Events:
1. New Frontier: Group of domestic polices proposed by John Kennedy that included Medicare and aid to education and urban renewal; many of these policies were not enacted until President Lyndon B. Johnson.
2. Great Society: Overarching plan by President Lyndon B. Johnson to assist the underprivileged in America society; it included the creation of the Department of Housing and Urban Affairs and Head Start and Medicare programs. Some Great Society programs were later reduced because of the cost of the Vietnam War.
3. Medicare: system, which provided hospital insurance and medical coverage for America’s senior citizen.
4. Medicaid: system, which assisted Americans of any age who could not afford health insurance.

5. Civil Right Act of 1964: Major civil rights legislation that outlawed racial discrimination in public facilities, in employment and in voter registration.
6. Sit-ins: Blacks were not allowed to eat at the lunch counters of many Southern stores, even though blacks could buy merchandise at the stores. Black and white civil right workers would sit down at these lunch counters; when they were denied service; they continued to sit there (nonviolently preventing other paying customers from taking their spaces).
7. Freedom Rides: On the Freedom Rides, both black and white volunteers started in Washington and were determined to ride through the South to see if cities had complied with the Supreme Court’s decision about blacks on buses.
8. Black Power: The philosophy of some younger blacks in the 1960s who were impatient with the slow pace of desegregation, its advocates believed that blacks should create and control their own political and cultural institutions rather than seeking integration into white-dominated society.
9. Roe V Wade (1973): Supreme Courte decision that made abortion legal (with some restrictions).
9. Roe V Wade (1973): Supreme Courte decision that made abortion legal (with some restrictions).
10. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: Congressional resolution passed in August 1964 following reports that U.S. Navy ships had been fired on by North Vietnamese gunboats off the Vietnam coast; in essence it gave the president power to fight the Vietnam War without approval from Congress. Many historians doubt if an attack on U.S. ships actually took place.
11. Tet Offensive: A key battle of the Vietnam was the Tet Offensive, which began on January 30, 1968. During the first day of the Vietnamese New Year, the Vietcong initiated major offensives in the cities across South Vietnam. In the end, the Vietcong and North Vietnamese suffered major losses as a result of the Tet Offensive. Nevertheless, this is the battle that began to conclusively turn American public opinion against the war.
12. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS): radical, activist student organizations created in 1960 that advocated a more democratic, participator society. SDS was one of the major student organizations opposing the Vietnam War.
13. Counterculture: a movement by young people in the 1960s who rejected political involvement and emphasized the need for personal instead of political revolution. Many member of the counterculture wore long hair and experimented with various drugs, with sex, and with unconventional lining arrangements. (Hippies)
14. Kent State University: campus in Ohio where four students who were part of a 1970 protest against U.S. involvement in Cambodia were shot and killed by National Guardsmen.
Review Questions:
The participants in this week’s ant draft demonstration . . . are . . . students or young men . . . who are working within a coalition . . . which calls itself the Stop the Draft Week Committee. . . .
—Douglas Robinson, New York Times, December 6, 1967

The demonstration described in this article was most likely prompted by —
a. renewed diplomatic relations with communist China
b. escalated deployment of military forces to Vietnam
c. the signing of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
d. the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Jackie Robinson first rose to national prominence in the late 1940s when he —
a. organized sit-ins to desegregate lunch counters
b. enrolled in the racially segregated University of Mississippi
c. helped bring an end to racial segregation in Major League Baseball
d. participated in the Freedom Rides to desegregate interstate bus terminals

The primary reason given by U.S. leaders to justify military involvement in Vietnam was that it would —
a. promote reconstruction after World War II
b. maintain the policy of détente
c. fulfill prior United Nations obligations
d. keep communism from spreading throughout the region

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 eliminated —
a. barriers to voting for women
b. literacy tests as prerequisites for voting
c. proof of residency as a condition for voting
d. age discrimination in state voting laws

Some historians claim that the accomplishments of the presidency of Richard Nixon are often overlooked. Nixon opened diplomatic relations with China, improved relations with the Soviet Union, and began to break the Democratic stranglehold on politics in the South that had existed since the New Deal. Despite these developments, Richard Nixon will always be associated with the Watergate scandal. Watergate began a period where faith in the national government sharply declined; this lasted through the presidencies of Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter. With the election of Ronald Reagan, many Americans began to “have faith in America again.” Just as Nixon began a new relationship with China, under Reagan, America entered into a more positive relationship with its formal rival, the Soviet Union.
Terms and Events:
1. Southern Strategy: political strategy implemented by President Richard Nixon to win over Southern whites to the Republican Party; the strategy succeeded through administration policies such as delaying school desegregation plans.
2. Détente: foreign policy of decreasing tensions with the Soviet Union; begun in the first term of the Nixon administration. 2. Détente: foreign policy of decreasing tensions with the Soviet Union; begun in the first term of the Nixon administration.
3. Watergate: the series of events beginning with the break-in at Democratic Party Headquarters in the Watergate complex in Washington, DC that led to the down fall of President Richard Nixon; Nixon resigned as the House of Representative was preparing for an impeachment hearing.
1. Camp David Accords (1978): peace agreement between Israel and Egypt that was mediated by President Jimmy Carter; many consider this the highlight of the Carter presidency.
6. Iranian Hostage Crisis: diplomatic crisis triggered on November 4, 1979 when Iranian protester seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran and held 66 American diplomats hostage for 444 days. President Carter was unable to free the hostages despite several attempts; to many these events symbolized the paralysis of American Power in 1970s. Iranians took U.S. hostages because the Shah of Iraq looked for medical asylum in the United States. Iranians believe the Shah was not truly sick and that the United States was planning to put him back in charge of the government of Iran.
7. Religious right: right-leaning evangelical Christians (Billy Graham) who increasingly supported Republican candidates beginning with Ronald Reagan.
8. Iran-Contra Affair: scandal that erupted during the Reagan administration when it was revealed that U.S. government agents had secretly sold arms to Iran in order to raise money to fund Anticommunist “Contra” forces in Nicaragua. Those acts directly contravened an ongoing U.S. trade embargo with Iran as well as federal legislation limiting aid to the Contras. Several Regan administration officials were convicted of federal crimes as a result.
9. Reaganomics: (also known as trickledown economics, supply-side economics, and voodoo economics) Reagan and his economic staff believed in “Reaganomics” which stated that if more money was put in the hands of wealthy Americans by cutting taxes, they would invest it in the economy, thus creating more jobs and additional growth (and eventually additional tax revenue).
10. Military Build Up: (Star War) On March 23, 1983, in what later became known as his “Star War” speech, President Ronald Reagan announces his plans to develop an anti-missile capability to counter the threat of Soviet ballistic missiles and to make these nuclear weapons "impotent and obsolete.”
Review Questions:
In 1979 the Shah of Iran was forced into exile. The U.S. government later allowed the Shah to enter the United States for medical treatment. This perceived U.S. support for the Shah of Iran resulted in which of the following?

a. Iran attacked a U.S. military base in Asia.
b. Soviet forces began an occupation of Iran.
c. Israel demanded U.S. support for the strategic bombing of cities in Iran.
d. Revolutionaries kidnapped a group of U.S. citizens in Iran.

The Oil Price Safeguard Act would help to moderate sharp spikes in oil and gas prices
caused by price fixing and production quotas through the judicious use of our enormous
petroleum reserves. The global oil market is dominated by an international cartel with the ability to dramatically affect the price of oil. The eleven member countries . . . supply over 40
percent of the world’s oil and possess 78 percent of the world’s total proven crude oil
reserves. Their control of the world’s oil supply allows these countries to collude to drive
up the price of oil.
—Senator Susan Collins, speech on the Senate floor, November 17, 1999

In this excerpt, Senator Collins proposed legislation intended to address —
a. Iraqi aggression against neighboring countries
b. the refusal of the Israeli government to recognize Palestine
c. the collective economic power of OPEC member nations
d. the formation of a military coalition among Arab states

The policy objectives of Reaganomics were based on the theory that —
a. borrowing from foreign countries would help cover the costs of domestic programs
b. significant increases in government spending would help reduce unemployment
c. broad tax cuts and financial deregulation would promote economic expansion
d. reducing trade barriers would result in a budget surplus

The incident illustrated by this cartoon increased cynicism toward the U.S. government because —
a. the press secretary failed to keep the public informed of national policy changes
b. the president directed a conspiracy to mislead the nation
c. the Supreme Court overruled federal statutes that defined confidentiality
d. Congress failed to pass legislation enforcing protection of privacy rights

For much of the post-World War II era, the popularity of a president was largely determined by his success in foreign policy and in handling foreign crises. With the ending of the Cold War at the end of 1980s, skills in handling domestic issues became equally important for presidents and their staffs. President Bush (I) and Clinton are perfect examples of this: Bush’s popularity was sky-high after his Desert Storm victory, yet he ended up being defeated by Bill Clinton largely because of economic problems that developed in the closing years of his term. Despite a mountain of personal and ethical issues that surrounded him, President Clinton was able to keep high approval ratings because of continuing successful economy.
Key Terms and Events:
1. New Right: conservative movement that began n the 1960s and supported Republican candidates in the twenty-first century; many voters from the South and from the middle class were attracted by the New Right’s emphasis on patriotism and strict moral values.
2. Operation Desert Storm (1991): military action by the United States and a coalition of allied nations against Iraq and its leader Saddam Hussein after Iraq had invaded Kuwait; this operation was a resounding success, although the decision was made not to force Saddam Hussein from power.
3. Whitewater: a series of real estate dealings in Arkansas involving Bill Clinton long before he became president, Republicans accused Clinton of associated financial improprieties, but no charges were even proven. The Whitewater affair was one of several accusations that eventually led to Clinton being impeached by the House of Representatives but acquitted by the Senate.
4. NAFTA: (North America Free Trade Agreement) Clinton worked with many Republicans to secure a passing for NAFTA in Congress. The goal of NAFTA was to gradually remove all trade barriers between the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
5. The Balkan Crisis: In the spring of 1999, President Bill Clinton launched a war to reverse Serbian dictator Slobodan Milosevic's "ethnic cleansing" of Albanians from the province of Kosovo
6. Contract with America: a list of conservation measures proposed by Republican after winning control of the House of Representatives in 1994; it included term limits and promised to balance the federal budget and to reduce the size of the federal government. Republican supporters of the Contract were led by Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich.
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