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Copy of Chapter 30: Revolution and Nationalism, 1900-1939
Transcript of Copy of Chapter 30: Revolution and Nationalism, 1900-1939
1900-1939 Revolutions in Russia Terence Snowden In 1881, the reform-minded czar, Alexander II, was assassinated. Russia was on the brink of a complete revolution. The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a very long fuse. Army officers revolted in 1825. Secret revolutionary groups plotted to overthrow the government. Alexander III 1881, Alexander III became czar. He believed in an autocracy. If anyone worshipped outside the Russian Orthodox Church, spoke a language other than Russian, or questioned his authority, they were labeled dangerous. Totalitarianism Frederic Nicholas Totalitarianism a government which exercises complete control over all aspects of public and private life Having gained complete control over the Communist Party, Joseph Stalin aimed to turn Russia into a perfect Communist state. In order to accomplish such a feat, he devised methods aimed at controlling and persuading his people. METHODS OF CONTROL Police State Stalin built a police state to maintain his power. His secret police force used tanks and armored cars to stop riots. They monitored telephone lines, read mail, and planted informants everywhere. Families lived in constant fear of the early morning knock at the door that would signal the arrest of a family member. In 1934, Stalin turned against the members of the Communist Party. He launched the Great Purge, a campaign to eliminate anyone who threatened his power. The party was now over. Thousands of Bolsheviks who helped bring about the Communist Party stood trial, and were executed or sent to labor camps. By the conclusion of the Great Purge, Stalin had gained complete control of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party. Propaganda Biased or incomplete information meant to persuade Due to the control of all media by the state,
citizens were surround by false info that appeared true. Suggesting that the information was false was an act of treason, and was severely punished. Censorship Any person who produced a work that did not conform to the views of the state was to retract it, or face dire consequences. Education Indoctrination & Schoolchildren were taught the values of the communist party. Professors who questioned the Communist interpretation of history risked losing their jobs, and imprisonment. Stalin called for a command economy - a system where government makes all economic decisions - to make up the industrial gap between the Soviet Union and other nations He pushed Five-Year Plans with high quotas on industrial production. These plans required limits on the production of consumer goods. Stalin's Five Year Plans produced impressive results. Industrial production of steel and coal rose immensely. The government began to seize privately owned farms, and combined them to form USSR-owned collective farms. Peasants fought the government seizure of their land. Still, agricultural production increased by a great amount. Under Stalin, women saw their rights increase.
They were prominently employed in factories and on farms as their husbands fought in the war. Life Under Stalin 1918 Indians troops returned home from war, to be treated like second–class citizens.
Some Indians carried out acts of violence to show their hatred of British rule.
Rowlatt Acts – these laws allowed the government to jail protestors without trial for as long as two years. Indian Nationalism Grows Civil Disobedience – he deliberate and public refusal to obey an unjust law, and nonviolence as the means to achieve independence.
Like the propaganda here, it sends a message of civil disobedience, but in retrospect makes Gandhi appear as a threat to the oppression at hand. Civil Disobedience In 1930, Gandhi organized a demonstration to defy the hated Salt Acts.
In this peaceful protest called the Salt March, Gandhi and many followers walked to the sea to make their own salt.
More demonstrations against salt tax took place throughout India. 60,000 people including Gandhi were arrested. The Salt March Turkey be comes a republic.
Ottoman Empire was forced to give up all its territories.
1922, Mustafa Kemal leads Turkish nationalists in fighting Greeks and their British backers.
In 1923 he becomes the president of the new republic of Turkey. He pushed for modernization reforms.
Sadly he passed in 1938, but was given the name Atatruk which means, ”father of the Turks.” Nationalism in Southwest Asia 1. What did Gandhi mainly protest for?
A. Women’s rights
C. Indian Independence
2. What does Ataturk mean?
A. “father of the Turks”
B. “father of the cheese heads”
C. “father of Jesus Christ”
D. “father of your mother”
3. What was Iran’s former name?
B. Persia 4. How many people were arrested with Gandhi after the Salt March?
A. 2 people
B. 178,278 people
C. 60,000 people
D. 0.192 people
5. Who became the president of the new republic of Turkey?
C. Ibn Suad Section 4 Quiz
Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia Michael Seaton Until WWI, the vast majority of Indians had little interest in nationalism. Setting the Stage A protest against the Rowlatt Acts 10000 Hindus and Muslims went to Amristar to support.
The British Amristar believed the protestors were openly defying the ban of British government. He ordered his troops to fire on the crowd without warning to the public.
This massacre sparked the explosion of anger across India.
Nearly 400 Indians died and about 1200 were wounded. Amristar Massacre Monhandas K. Ghani - leader of the independence in India, he had strategies for battling injustice with nonviolence.
His approach was deeply religious it involved a blend of ideas from Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity.
Ghandi was soon to be called Mahatma, which means, “Great Soul.” Gandhi’s Tactics of Nonviolence Some Indians didn’t follow Gandhi’s teachings so most protest led to riots. Strikes and Demonstrations Ghandi and his followers gradually reaped the rewards of their civil disobedience, together they gained greater political power for the Indian people.
In 1935, the British Parliment passed the Government of India Act.
This act provided local self-government and limited democratic elections, but not total independence. Britain Grants Self-Rule In 1921 a Persian army officer seized power, with an group of his militants over the spheres of influence in Persia by Great Britain and Russia.
His name Reza shah Pahlavi, like Kemal, when he got power, he wanted to modernize his country.
Unlike Kemal, Reza kept all power to himself
1935 he change proclaimed that Persia has a new name IRAN!!!!!!! Persia becomes Iran In Arabia Islamic traditions were lost, but Islamic law was held up to standard.
1902, Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud, campaigned to unify Arabia.
1932, renamed the new kingdom Saudi Arabia after his family.
Like Kemal and Reza, he brought modernized, but no efforts to begin the practice of democracy were evident. Saudi Arabia keeps Islamic Traditions
The land around the Persian gulf has nearly two-thirds of the world’s known supply of oil.
Because oil brought hug profits, Western nations tried to dominate this region. Oil Drives Development Russia Industrializes The number of factories in Russia doubled between 1863 and 1900. Russia became the world's 4th largest steel producer. Working conditions were terrible, wages were low, and child labor was prominent. while the Chinese Communist Party was forming, Sun Yixian and his Nationalist Party formed a government in south China
Sun Yixian became disillusioned by the Western democracies and decided to join the Communist Party, with this move he hoped to unite the revolutionary groups for a common action
in 1923 Lenin sent military advisers and equipment to the nationalists in return for allowing the CCP to join the Kuomintang in 1925 the death of Sun Yixian brought a new leader to the Kuomintang, Jiang Jieshi, formally known as Chiang Kai-shek
Jiang’s followers were bankers and businesspeople who feared the Communists goal of creating a socialist economy modeled after the Soviet Union Peasants Align With the Communists Lenin Befriends China Communist Party in China in 1921 a group met in Shanghai to organize the CCP or Chinese Communist Party
among its founders was an assistant librarian at Beijing University, Mao Zedong, who would later become China’s great revolutionary leader
Mao believed he could bring revolution to a rural country where peasants could be the true revolutionaries
“The force of the peasantry is like that of the raging winds and driving rain. It is rapidly increasing in violence. No force can stand in its way. The peasantry will tear apart all nets which bind it and hasten along the road to liberation. They will bury beneath them all forces of imperialism, militarism, corrupt officialdom, village bosses and evil gentry.” –quoted in Chinese Communism and the Rise of Mao Nationalists Overthrow Qing Dynasty The Nationalist or Kuomintang Party, led by Sun Yixian (a Chinese revolutionary who was increasingly frustrated in the governments refusal to adopt knowledge from more technologically advanced Western nations), pushed for modernization and nationalism in early 1900s China
in 1911 the Nationalist Party succeeded in overthrowing the last of the Qing Dynasty that had ruled China since 1644
as founder of the new Republic of China, Sun Yixian established a modern government based on the “Three Principles of the People”:
1) Nationalism-an end to foreign control
2) People’s Rights-democracy
3) People’s Livelihood-economic security for all Chinese
Sun Yixian’s influence did not last because of lack of authority and military support to secure national unity “The Chinese People…do not have national spirit. Therefore even though we have four hundred million people gathered together in one China, in reality, they are just a heap of loose sand.” May Fourth Movement May 4, 1919 over 3,000 angry students gathered in Beijing, this single demonstration exploded into a national movement later called the May Fourth Movement
Workers, shopkeepers and professionals joined the
demonstrations and showed the Chinese peoples
commitment to the goal of establishing a strong,
although Sun Yixian shared the aims of the movement,
young Chinese intellectuals turned against
Sun Yixian’s belief in Western democracy
in favor of Lenin’s brand of Soviet communism Comrade Mao Zedong “The May 4th Movement twenty years ago marked a new stage in China's bourgeois-democratic revolution against imperialism and feudalism. The cultural reform movement which grew out of the May 4th Movement was only one of the manifestations of this revolution. With the growth and development of new social forces in that period, a powerful camp made its appearance in the bourgeois-democratic revolution, a camp consisting of the working class, the student masses and the new national bourgeoisie. Around the time of the May 4th Movement, hundreds of thousands of students courageously took their place in the van. In these respects the May 4th Movement went a step beyond the Revolution of 1911. “
“If we trace China's bourgeois-democratic revolution back to its formative period, we see that it has passed through a number of stages in its development: the Opium War, the War of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the Sino-Japanese War of 1894,the Reform Movement of 1898,the Yi Ho Tuan Movement, the Revolution of 1911, the May 4th Movement, the Northern Expedition, and the War of the Agrarian Revolution. The present War of Resistance Against Japan is yet another stage, and is the greatest, most vigorous and most dynamic stage of all. The bourgeois-democratic revolution can be considered accomplished only when the forces of foreign imperialism and domestic feudalism have basically been overthrown and an independent democratic state has been established. From the Opium War onwards each stage in the development of the revolution has had its own distinguishing characteristics. But the most important feature differentiating them is whether they came before or after the emergence of the Communist Party. However, taken as a whole, all the stages bear the character of a bourgeois-democratic revolution The aim of this democratic revolution is to establish a social system hitherto unknown in Chinese history, namely, a democratic social system having a feudal society (during the last hundred years a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society) as its precursor and a socialist society as its successor. If anyone asks why a Communist should strive to bring into being first a bourgeois-democratic society and then a socialist society, our answer is: we are following the inevitable course of history. “ Excerpt written for newspapers to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the May Fourth Movement Nationalists and Communists Clash April 1927 Nationalist troops and armed gangs moved into Shanghai and killed many Communist leaders and trade union members in city streets, these ambushed continued in other cities and almost wiped out the Chinese Communist Party
in 1928 Jiang became president of the newly formed Nationalist Republic of China that was formally recognized by Britain and the U.S, however, not by the Soviet Union who disapproved the slaughter of Communist leaders in China
the treachery of the Nationalist Party led to a civil war that would last until 1949 THE LONG MARCH Within 12 months, the Communists had lost 50% of the territory they had controlled in 1933 and 60,000 Communist soldiers (the Red Army) were killed. The Red Army started to Long March carrying whatever it could. 87,000 soldiers started the retreat carrying such items as typewriters, furniture, printing presses etc. They also took with them 33,000 guns and nearly 2 million ammunition cartridges, the Red Army lost 45,000 men – over 50% of their fighting force.. – (excerpt from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/) Civil-War Suspended -1931 the Japanese invaded Manchuria, an industrialized province in the northeast part of China - the Japanese forces watched the power struggles of the Chinese on Chinese war, and took advantage of their separated and weakening situation, in 1937 the Japanese enacted an all-out invasion of China that killed thousands of Chinese with massive bombings and destruction of farms which also caused many more to die of starvation, by 1938 Japan controlled a large part of China - the civil war gradually ground to a halt as Nationalists and Communists temporarily united to fight the Japanese, because of this forced union, the Nationalists further agreed to promote changes outlined in Sun Yixian’s “Three Principles of the People” -The tide turns towards the Communist army— now called the PLA (People’s Liberation Army). Mao’s Red Army starts defeating KMT forces. The Commies take Beijing in January 1949. Nanjing and Shanghai would soon follow.
By the end of the year, remaining KMT forces flee to Taiwan (a former Japanese colony since 1895.
-They surrendered it after losing WWII…though to no country in particular). Chiang Kai-shek sets up a government in exile there—the Republic of China.
The KMT also escapes with many of China’s best treasures. Today, The National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan is by far the best place to see China’s ancient art and artifacts (almost 700,000 pieces, which are continuously rotated). October 1, 1949: At a huge rally on Tiananmen Square, Mao claims the birth of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). (http://www.china-mike.com/) (Propaganda poster made in 1950 used to gain support for the newly formed Peoples Republic of China) Communist Red Army Wins CHAPTER 30 SECTION 3
IMPERIAL CHINA World War I Causes Problems Yuan Shikai was given authority over the Republic, he betrayed the government ideals of Sun and caused many revolts around China, catalyzing a civil war that sparked in 1916 without a specified leader as General Yuan died, authority rested on provincial warlords and powerful military leaders
in 1917 the government in Beijing declared war against Germany in hopes of an Allied victory many Chinese believed that because of China’s participation previously owned Chinese territories would be redistributed to the country, however, under the Treaty of Versailles, Japan gained these territories. The most disputed territory was Qingdao.
Qingdao- a major sub port city near the Yellow Sea Civil War Rages in China by 1930 Nationalists and Communists were fighting a bloody civil war
the Communists leaders established themselves in the countryside hills of south-central China, a tactic called “swimming in the peasant sea”, which recruited the peasants to join the Communists Red Army that were promptly trained in guerrilla warfare
in 1933 Jiang of the nationalists gathered an army of 700,000 men that surrounded the Communists mountain stronghold
the outnumbered Communist forces fled in a fleet of 100,000 to escape defeat, they began a 600 mile journey that would be later called the Long March that lasted between 1934-1935. Thousands died from hunger, cold, exposure, and battle wounds
after a little more than a year Mao and the few thousand Communist survivors settled in caves in Northwestern China while Japan invaded Table of Contents 1. Revolutions in Russia - Terence
2. Totalitarianism - Frederic
3. Imperial China - Christopher
4. Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia - Michael Totalitarianism Quiz 1. Which is a method of totalitarian control?
C. Asking Nicely
D. Chicken McNuggets 3. How did Stalin promote industrialization?
A. He installed a capitalistic economy.
B. He subsidized farmers.
C. Five-Year Plans
D. All of the Above 2. Stalin held a secret police force to assert his power.
C. Chicken McNuggets 4. Stalin's philosophy was...
D. Chicken McNuggetism 5. Propaganda is...
A. Always True
B. Biased Information
C. An Excellent Means of Communication
D. Made from Chicken McNuggets • 1881, Alexander III halted all reforms in Russia. •Alexander III followed the principles of autocracy, a form of government in which he had total power. •Alexander III imposed censorship codes • Secret police watched both secondary schools and universities carefully •Made Russian the official language of the empire and forbade the use of minority languages such as Polish in schools •There was a revolution against the Jews in Russia police and soldiers just watched • The number of factories more than doubled between 1863 and 1900 • By around 1900 Russia had become the world’s fourth-ranking producer of steel •With the help of British and French investors work began on the world’s longest continuous rail line the Trans-Siberian Railway; connected European Russia in the west with Russian ports on the Pacific Ocean in the east •The Marxist revolutionaries believed that the industrial class of workers would overthrow the czar. •These workers would then form “a dictatorship of the proletariat”. This meant that the proletariat, the workers, would rule the country •1902, Russian Marxists split into two groups over revolutionary tactics. The more moderate Mensheviks wanted a broad base of popular support for the revolution. Answer Key:
5) B Other Sources BBC History PBS History http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/stalin_joseph.shtml http://www.pbs.org/redfiles/bios/all_bio_joseph_stalin.htm •The more radical Bolsheviks supported a small number of committed revolutionaries willing to sacrifice everything for change. •On January 22, 1905 about 200,000 workers and their families approached the czar’s Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. They carried a petition asking for better working conditions, more personal freedom, and an elected national legislature. Nicholas II’s generals ordered soldiers to fire on the crowd. •1914, Nicholas II made the decision to enter Russia into World War I • In 1917 women textile workers led a citywide strike Czar Nicholas II stepped down off his throne.
A provisional government was placed in his absence.
Soviets were local councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers. In many cities, the soviets had more influence than the provisional government A New Form of Government Lenin returned to Russia in 1917 after he was exiled.
The Bolsheviks took over the provisional government and were now in power.
From 1918-1920, civil war raged in Russia
Lenin thus put aside his plan for a state-controlled economy. Instead, he restored to a small-scale version of capitalism called the New Economic Policy (NEP)
Later, the Bolsheviks renamed their party the Communist Party. The Communist Party is, at least according to Leninist theory, the vanguard party of the working class, whether ruling or non-ruling.
When such a party is in power in a specific country, the party is said to be the highest authority of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Lenin's theories on the role of a communist party were developed as the early 20th-century Russian social democracy divided into Bolshevik (meaning "majority") and Menshevik (meaning "minority") factions. Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, argued that a revolutionary party should be a small vanguard party with a centralized political command and a strict cadre policy; the Menshevik faction, however, argued that the party should be a broad-based mass movement.
The Bolshevik party, which eventually became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, took power in Russia after the October Revolution in 1917. With the creation of the Communist International, the Leninist concept of party building was copied by emerging communist parties worldwide. Lenin suffered a stroke in 1922.
At the same time, Joseph Stalin began his ruthless climb to the head of the government.