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A Story of Canada - Part 2

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Sherene Schmidtler

on 13 March 2017

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Transcript of A Story of Canada - Part 2

2014
1815
A Story of Canada - Part 2
The Great Migration
Why do you think following the War of 1812, Britain wanted to encourage an increase in population from countries such as England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland?
Upper and Lower Canada Rebellions
As the population grew rapidly in British North America, so did tensions.
Confederation
Before Confederation, British North America consisted of 5 different regions and had seven different colonies. Each region was an area of land that had a similar geography, people and cultural practices.
The Metis in the Middle
Expanding Confederation
Expanding the West
The Face of a New Canada
After the signing of the Treaty of Ghent the population numbers were:
Newfoundland = 30,000
PEI = 12,000
New Brunswick = 40,000
Nova Scotia = 70,000
Upper Canada = 95,000
and Lower Canada = 330,000
Between 1815 and 1850 more than 800,000 immigrants moved from their homelands to live in British North America
Why would they ever want to leave home in the first place?
LOSS OF FARMLAND
Farmers were being forced off the land as cities in Europe grew.
Also it was more profitable to have a sheep ranch then it was to farm the land
POTATO FAMINE
There was a famine in Ireland because of poor potato crops
SAFE TRAVEL
Now that Europe wasn't at war any longer it was safer to travel
Bottom line there were still too many French speaking Canadians and Britain wanted to shift the population numbers to be more English speaking
Increased
UNEMPLOYMENT

Population number continued to increase and jobs were hard to find.
Now that Europe wasn't at war many soldiers were no longer needed and were unemployed.
Machines were taking jobs away from craftspeople
Britain was so eager to increase to population of English speaking citizens that they:
Offered free passages to British North America
Offered free food (for a year) and farming implements to British soldiers
Immigrants were encouraged to take the following items with them:
Beds and Bedding
Dishes
Warm clothing
Marriage and Birth Certificates
A Bible
Many of the immigrant ships earned the name COFFIN SHIPS
The voyage lasted 20-60 days
The ships used were actually CARGO ships made for carrying lumber and other goods
The ships were FULL beyond capacity
They were called coffin ships because if they sank everyone went down with the ship.
The living quarters were:
cramped
unsanitary
rat infested
British Immigrants

What were they hoping for?
A chance at a better life (jobs, food, healthier environment, supplies and rights)

What did they face in BNA?
: For many they found jobs, education and freedom of religion. The had to survive a harsh climate with cold winters and awful insects.
Irish Immigrants

What were they hoping for?
To escape the Potato Famine and starvation. They hoped for more food and better farming land

What did they face in BNA?
Little respect and quarantine stations where 1/3 of them died
How did the flow of these immigrants change BNA?

Many settled in Upper Canada
Newcomers opened up vast areas for farming
New industries of farming and mining began to emerge
Towns sprang up
Most importantly, in the end British North America became MORE British and LESS French
By the end of the Great Migration, population numbers in BNA were:
Newfoundland = 102,000
PEI = 70,000
New Brunswick = 194,000
Nova Scotia = 277,000
Upper Canada = 952,000
and Lower Canada = 890,000
What about the First Nations?

First Nations numbers were not included in the previous population numbers.

In Upper Canada:

1824 = 18,000
1842 = 12,000
It all had to do with the Constitutional Act of 1791 and the way that the Government was organized.
People in both Upper and Lower Canada were upset the government was not responsible to the people
LOWER CANADA REBELLION
JUST TO REVIEW:
The Governor was appointed by the Crown and then he appointed his friends and relatives. Everyone was Anglophone (English speaking). This group of people in Lower Canada was known as the
Chateau Clique
Let's also remember that Lower Canada was mostly Francophone (French speaking)
So it is easy to understand why the people were so upset.
Louis-Joseph Papineau led a group of radicals (rebels) called the
Patriotes
. These men were unhappy with the appointed councils in Lower Canada's Government. The
Patriotes
were the members of the elected ASSEMBLY
Louis Joseph Papineu was a wealthy seigneur and lawyer. He also served as an officer in the militia during the War of 1812
He was elected into the LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY in 1809
In 1834, they presented the Ninety Two Resolutions to the ASSEMBLY. The assembly agreed with all of the reforms and they took them to the COUNCILS
The reforms were
REJECTED
!
Papineau spoke at a gathering of French Canadiens at the Richelieu Valley. He tried to calm the angry calls for armed rebellion. He did not want the people to raise arms against the British Government.
Papineau was a PASSIVIST
Wolfred Nelson also spoke at the Richelieu Valley. He disagreed with Papineau and proclaimed, "I disagree! Now is the time to melt our spoons into bullets.
Nelson wanted an ARMED REBELLION!
The Richelieu Valley Conference, led to the Battle of St. Denis (1837)
British troops were sent to arrest Papineau
Nelson led a blockade against the troops
Papineau fled to safety when he saw the troops coming (He crawled under a fence and ran away)
A fierce gun battle ensued and the British troops were forced to retreat.
Following this upset, the British troops prepared to crush the
Patriotes
resistance in Lower Canada. This was the Battle of St. Charles (1837)
250
Patriotes
were waiting
425 British Soldiers were sent
It was a
BLOODBATH
(150
Patriotes
died. Only 7 British troops died)
Papineau and Nelson fled to the United States.
The British had successfully quashed the resistance in the Richelieu Valley. Now they turned their attentions to Montreal. This was the Battle of St. Eustache (1837)
1400 British troops marched to St. Eustache - just outside of Montreal.
The
Patriotes
resistance was pushed back into a village church which was set on fire
As the men ran out to escape the burning building, the British troops shot them.
Over 100
Patriotes
died.
Then the British troops looted and burned the entire village.
This marks the END of the Lower Canada Rebellion
The immediate consequences
325 French Canadiens died
100 rebels were arrested
Many rebels were hanged
French Canadian property was destroyed
THERE WERE NO REFORMS TO THE GOVERNMENT!
UPPER CANADA REBELLIONS
The
Patriotes
wanted:
The elected ASSEMBLY to have control of how tax dollars were spent in Lower Canada
The government to be RESPONSIBLE to the voters by having the Governor choose the appointed COUNCIL from the ELECTED members.
This group of
Patriotes
were:
Members of the French Canadien merchant elite (rich)
Were almost exclusively French
The rebellions were spurred on by the rebellion in Lower Canada AND an election gone wrong...
As always, the people need a leader...
The actions of the rebels were not well received and the British Governors felt the French Canadiens must be punished.
The APPOINTED Council in UPPER CANADA was called the FAMILY COMPACT
They were a small group of wealthy Anglophone men
They controlled
the government
banking
land grants
courts
and the Anglican Church


Time to review the roles of everyone
Governor (AKA Lt. Governor)
appointed all officials
judges
sheriffs
justices of the peace
custom and immigration officials
Indian affairs officials
Postal officials
Military officers
gave land grants
Offered $$ rewards to the faithful
Issues facing the people of UPPER CANADA
The best land was granted to members of the FAMILY COMPACT
The Anglican Church was also giving huge amounts of land
The best land was therefore in the hands of non farmers
less than 10% of land was in farm production
New settlers were given poor land to farm on
Many roads were impassable
The Family Compact spent money on building water canals that only benefited themselves (not farmers)
William Lyon Mackenzie
Scottish newspaper publisher
His newspaper
The

Advocate
attacked the actions of the Governor and Family Compact
Printed scandals and gossip for all the colony to read
Was elected into the ASSEMBLY
He was ejected from the ASSEMBLY for being mouthy and disrespectful, but always re-elected by the people
He was the leader of the REFORMERS
The Reformers wanted
Responsible Government
and the Governor to appoint members to the COUNCIL from the ELECTED members
The APPOINTED Council in LOWER CANADA was called the CHATEAU CLIQUE
They were a small group of wealthy Anglophone men
They controlled
the government
banking
land grants
and courts
What were the people really upset about?
The decisions of the government were being made by rich Anglophones who were friends of the Governor
Roads were poorly maintained
The crops weren't doing well and people were starving
Too many British Immigrants were moving in and starting to take over Lower Canada
High taxation
The people needed a leader...
Louis-Joseph Papineau
Wolfred Nelson
The 1836 Election Fiasco
In an effort to get the ASSEMBLY to support his government, the Governor intervened on the election
He opening supported the Conservatives and hinted that voting them into the Assembly would result in the roads being fixed.
This resulted in the election of the CONSERVATIVE party (who supported the Governor) and not the REFORMERS (who did not support the Governor
Mackenzie was not re-elected and was ANGRY!
Mackenzie rode through the streets of York (present day Toronto) calling for rebellion.
He didn't just want government reform, not he wanted to overthrow the government and declare a new Republic!
Between December 5 and 8, a group of about 1,000 rebels gathered at Montgomery's Tavern in York
Mackenzie knew that the Governor was preoccupied with sending all British troops to Montreal and felt this was a perfect time to stage a rebellion!
December 5
After a few pints and dressing themselves in multiple layers of coats to make themselves bulletproof, Mackenzie and his men decide to raid an armory and march south down Younge street.

Bond Head
They are met by Col Moodie who was on his way to warn the Governor of Mackenzie's actions
Moodie tries to break through the armed line and in poor judgment fires his weapon in the air.
Moodie is shot
Later that day, Mackenzie and his rebel army meet Sheriff Jarvis and a small Loyalist army
Shots are fired
The rebel army runs away
December 7
Two days after the fighting on Younge Street, the rebels began to reform again at Montgomery's Tavern in the building itself and the surrounding forest.
This time led by veteran soldier Lieutenant-Colonel James FitzGibbon, the loyalists moved up Younge Street and engaged the rebels outside Montogmery's Tavern killing three.
The rebel army retreats inside the tavern
FitzGibbon's soldiers and militiamen moved toward the building and the rebels leave with very little actual fighting.
For good measure, Fitzgibbon's men looted and burned the tavern to the ground
So what happened next?
Mackenzie escaped to Navy Island on the Niagra River and declared himself President of the Canadian Republic
Eventually, Mackenzie was pardoned for his acts of treason and was re-elected
The IMMEDIATE results of the rebellion
Property was destroyed
Rebel and Loyalist men were killed in the fighting
THERE WERE NO REFORMS TO THE GOVERNMENT
REACTION TO THE REBELLIONS
(THE CONSEQUENCE)
The British crown decided it was time to figure out what the people were so upset about. So Lord Durham was sent to figure out how to better understand and solve the issues
Durham was a wealthy British noble and politician.
He spent 5 months in BNA
When he returned to England he presented his famous Durham Report
So what did he have to say?
He said the French Canadiens were a people of "no history or literature"
He blamed the troubles in Lower Canada on one thing: the conflict between the French Canadiens and the English colonists.
He recommended that the French Canadiens be ASSIMILATED and that Upper and Lower Canada be united into a single colony
He blamed the troubles in Upper Canada on one thing: the government
He recommended that the colony be granted responsible government
Again the British Governor felt the rebels needed to be punished and many were hanged
THE CAUSE
William Lyon Mackenzie
We need to remember that the Governor would often appoint his friends and family to the Councils and these men were almost always English speaking.

Most importantly, we need to remember the real power of the government was in the hands of the Governor and the two councils. The COUNCIL had VETO POWER over the ASSEMBLY
Mackenzie decided to create a list of all the things that people were upset about. This was a 500 page document called the Seventh Report on Grievances. He took this report to the COUNCIL
It was denounced (ignored)
Now Mackenzie was REALLY ANGRY!
The ELECTED Assembly in UPPER CANADA was called the REFORM PARTY
The ELECTED Assembly in LOWER CANADA was called the PARTI PATRIOTES

Three main recommendations of Lord Durham’s Report
:
Upper and Lower Canada should be UNITED in one province.
There should be RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT in the province. This meant that the Executive Council (cabinet) should be chosen by the elected representatives of the people (NOT appointed by the Governor) and their decisions would need the support of the majority of the Legislative Assembly.
ASSIMILATION of the French Canadiens

Why Lord Durham made these recommendations:
He thought this would place the English in the majority in government, make English the only official language, and make decision making much easier. He was hoping for the ASSIMILATION of the French Canadiens
He thought that this would satisfy some of the unrest that had caused the rebellions.

THE REACTIONS TO THE DURHAM REPORT
BRITAIN
They rejected the idea of union and responsible government, because it was showing favour to the rebels PLUS it meant the crown would have less power.
LOWER CANADA
French Canadiens were outraged at the recommendation of assimilation
Overall they were quite apathetic to the whole cause as the church had recommended they not get involved after the failed rebellions.
UPPER CANADA
In Upper Canada, reformers were enthusiastic about the report's call for responsible government.
The conservative ruling class was less impressed, although they supported union.
SO WHAT HAPPENS NEXT?
The British decided to UNITE the two provinces into the PROVINCE OF CANADA in 1840
This was called the ACT OF UNION
The main points of the Act of Union
Upper and Lower Canada Government were united as the Province of Canada
Upper Canada was now called Canada West
Lower Canada was now called Canada East
The French language was NOT recognized in the Government
Canada West and Canada East had EQUAL REPRESENTATION in the Government
The government would meet in Kingston and then in Montreal
THE GOVERNMENT WAS STILL
NOT
RESPONSIBLE
The French Canadiens felt this was an
ACT OF OPPRESSION
The debts of Upper Canada and Lower Canada were now merged into one. Upper Canada had a large debt when Lower Canada had an accumulated surplus.
French Canadien $$ was being used to pay English debt
The Union Act provided for equal representation of the two parts of the new province in the new House of Assembly when in fact Lower Canada contained 60% of the population and Upper Canada had only 40%.
This meant there would be an English majority in the House of Assembly right from the start of the Union.
The financial requirements to vote in elections, or to be elected, had been raised making it more difficult to the poor to exercise their franchise.
As the French tended to be poorer than the English, fewer French could be voters
The new legislature to be elected would decide on the laws to be used.
As the majority was English, there was fear that French laws and the Seigneurial system would be put into jeopardy.
There was no requirements for French to be used in the laws and by the government of the Province.
This could mean loss of the French language

There continued to be political unrest in both Canada West and Canada East
But what happened in the government next was an interesting turn of events...
Baldwin and Lafontaine formed an English French reform alliance within the government
This reform alliance worked to make changes within the government
Bring the French language back into Government
Make the government truly responsible to the people
They needed a little help...
Lord Elgin was the new Governor (1846) in the Province of Canada
His father-in-law was Lord Durham (who recommended responsible government in the first place)
He was a believer in the idea of responsible government
He told Baldwin and Lafontaine as long as the Reform Alliance held the majority in the Assembly, he would listen to what they had to say.
Following the rebellions people in Canada West were compensated for damaged property. This never happened for the people of Canada East
The bill proposed a large amount of money to be paid to people of Canada East whose property had been damaged during the rebellion.
This included damages to houses, barns, livestock, fences, personal property
This would amount to about $100,000
THE REBELLION LOSSES BILL - Time to test Elgin's promise
The Family Compact and Chateau Clique (Tories) HATED the bill. They argued that it was rewarding the rebels for their actions against Britain
BUT the Reform Alliance held more seats in the assembly and they PASSED THE BILL
As the Governor, Lord Elgin had two choices
Ignore the bill and listen to the Tories (no responsible government
Sign the bill and listen to the people (responsible government)
After much deliberation (in his heart he felt the bill was unwise), he SIGNED THE BILL!
It is 1849 and United Canada has RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT!
English speaking Tories in Canada East were so upset they attacked Elgin and set fire to Parliament House in Montreal
Baldwin
LaFontaine
Lord Elgin
In the 1850s many colonists began to think about what they had in common and if they could be made stronger by uniting as a single country.
Internal Reasons in Favour of Confederation
Political Deadlock
- The Act of Union in 1841 had given Canada East and Canada West equal representation. Each province had the same number of representatives in the Legislative Assembly. However, no side had a majority. Therefore, the government could not make important decisions. When a government cannot pass any laws, it is called political deadlock. Because of the great migration, Canada West now had more people than Canada East. Canada West wanted representation by population or “rep by pop”. This meant that each politician in the Assembly would represent the same number of people. Canada West would have more representatives than Canada East and more control in government decisions. “Rep by pop” would give the English majority more power in the government.
Population Expansion
- People wanted to move into the northern and western territories. A united Canada could buy Rupert’s Land from the Hudson’s Bay Company.

Debt
- Some of the colonies had a lot of debt. They had borrowed money to build railways, roads and canals. If they joined Confederation, the federal government might pay each colony’s debts.
Inter Colonial Railway
- A railway was needed across Canada to improve trade between the colonies and move soldiers to defend Canada. A federal government might have the money and power to build a railway from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

External Reasons in Favour of Confederation
Decreasing financial and military support by Britain
- The colonies were too expensive for Britain to support and it no longer wanted to provide financial support or soldiers. A united Canada might not need so much help from the British government.
End of the Canadian-American Reciprocity Treaty
- Britain had urged the colonies to look for other markets to trade with. In 1854 A Reciprocity Trade Agreement was signed that said America and BNA could trade fish, timber and grain without having to pay import taxes. By 1864 The United States did not want to continue free trade with British North America (no more Reciprocity Treaty). A united Canada might improve trade between provinces.

Manifest Destiny
- Many politicians in the United States believe they had the right to own all of North America and they were willing to fight for it. People were afraid the United States would take British North America and make it part of the U.S.A. A united Canada might be able to defend itself better.
American Civil War
- In 1865, a Civil War began in the United States between the northern states and the southern states. The North (called the Union) was trying to end slavery in the South (called the Confederacy). Britain was supposed to be neutral in the war. This means it would not help either side. However, certain events caused problems between Britain and the Union government in the northern United States.
Fenian Raids
- Instead of an American army, the Fenians crossed the border in 1866 and began to attack towns in BNA. The Fenians were a group of Irish terrorists who wanted to free Ireland from British rule. They thought their attacks on BNA would make Britain take her soldiers out of Ireland to defend her colonies in British North America.
Who Are Some of the Fathers of Confederation?
JOHN A. MACDONALD
Macdonald was the leader of the Liberal-Conservative Party in Canada West.
He believed that Canada had to be a partnership between Canadiens and English Canadians.
He formed an alliance with George-Etienne Cartier from Canada East

Sir John A Macdonald
GEORGE ETIENNE CARTIER
Cartier was the leader of the le Parti Bleu in Canada East
He had taken part in the Lower Canada Rebellions in 1837
He wanted to protect the French language and culture
Joined the alliance with Macdonald

George Brown
GEORGE BROWN
Brown was the leader of the Reform Party in Canada West
The Great Alliance between Canada West and Canada East (as a way to break the political deadlock) was his idea
Retired from politics before Confederation came to be

CHARLES TUPPER
Was the leader of Nova Scotia
Represented Nova Scotia at the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences
Brought Nova Scotia into Confederation

SAMUEL TILLEY
Represented New Brunswick at the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences
Brought New Brunswick into Confederation

CHARLOTTETOWN CONFERENCE
The above events made more people in BNA think that Confederation would be a good idea. Government representatives decided to meet to talk about a plan. In September, 1864, delegates or representatives from the maritime colonies (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island) and the United Province of Canada (Canada East and Canada West) met in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island to talk about uniting under one central government.

John A. Macdonald, George Etienne Cartier, and George Brown tried to persuade the representatives of the maritime colonies that they should all join together in a federal union under one central government. After a lot of eating, drinking and dancing at a fancy ball, the delegates agreed. They decided to meet again in Quebec to talk about how this federal union would work.

QUEBEC CONFERENCE
On October 9, 1864, delegates from the maritime colonies and the United Province of Canada had a second meeting in Quebec City. They talked about how Canada would be governed under a federal union. John A. Macdonald presented a list called the Seventy Two Resolutions. This list was a set of rules for governing the new country. Macdonald persuaded the majority of delegates to agree with these rules.
The delegates had to persuade the rest of the people to agree with the rules also. There were many debates or discussions to allow the people to say how they felt. Finally, there was a vote in the Legislative Assembly in each colony and province.
Based on what you know about each region, what do you think they decided?
In the end, The United Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick voted for Confederation.
However, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland chose not to join the new union at this time.

LONDON CONFERENCE
The colonies needed permission from Britain to form a new country. Consequently, in 1866, 16 delegates from the United Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick sailed to London, England to present the Seventy Two Resolutions to the British government.
In London, they decided to make some changes to the Resolutions. They promised to build a railway that would unite the provinces of Canada. The federal government would also give more money to the provincial governments.
Britain wanted the colonies to become a new country. Therefore, the British government quickly passed the Seventy Two Resolutions. On July, 1867, a new country called the Dominion of Canada was born. Every year on this day, we celebrate Canada’s birthday.

BNA (BRITISH NORTH AMERICA) ACT
The Seventy Two Resolutions became part of Canada’s first constitution, the British North America Act (BNA Act). A constitution is a set of rules for governing a country. These are some of the important rules of the BNA Act:

1. Canada would continue to be part of the British family of countries (the British Commonwealth).
2. Canada would have a parliamentary system of government just like Britain. There would be two houses: a House of Commons and a Senate. The members of the House of Commons would be elected. The members of the Senate would be appointed by the governor general.
3. Canada would be a confederation. It would have two levels of government: a central government to make decisions that affected the whole country and a provincial government to decide about things that affected the people living in each province. Some responsibilities would be shared.
4. In the House of Commons, there would be representation by population. This meant that each province was allowed only so many members in the House of Commons based on the population of the province. In 1867 the numbers were:
Quebec - 64
Ontario - 82
Nova Scotia - 19
New Brunswick - 15

5. There would be four provinces in the new country: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario (Canada West), and Quebec (Canada East). Other provinces could join later so that Canada could grow “from sea to sea”.
6. No province had the right to change the constitution or secede from (leave) the new country.
A LIMITED DEMOCRACY?
You could only vote if you were over the age of 21, owned property or rented a large amount of property
Women were not allowed to vote
Farm labourers or unskilled workers were not allowed to vote
The Metis, First Nations and Inuit were not allowed to vote
Visible minorities (Chinese, African Americans) were not allowed to vote
ONLY 11% OF THE POPULATION HAD THE VOTE

Charles Tupper
Samuel Tilley
WHO WAS LIVING IN BNA?
Who were the different groups of people living in the colonies of British North America? The three largest groups were the English, the French, and the Aboriginal peoples. Some English or French men had married Aboriginal women. Their children were a mixed race of people who called themselves Metis. Each of these groups had their own culture, language, and way of life.

Time to review...

WHO WERE THE METIS?
Early contact between Europeans and the First Nations resulted in the Metis. As immigration into New France and then British North America continued, the Metis settled into the Red River in what is now known as Manitoba.
They formed a distinct cultural group with unique cultural practices and identity.
Many were Francophone
Some spoke their own distinct language of Michif
Roman Catholic
Many kept their First Nation spiritual beliefs
Developed a unique economy of fur trading, buffalo hunting, and farming (on narrow plots of land like the Seigneurial System)

The Metis in the Fur Trade
They were hunters, trappers, traders and freighters
Employed in trading posts
Were expert buffalo hunters
Made and traded pemmican (A mix of shredded/powdered buffalo, fat and berries that is dried)


Where did the Metis Settle?
Over time the Metis moved into the Red River . It is important to point out that the Metis were not the only people living in the Red River Region
4000 Francophone Metis
Cree and Anishinabe First Nations
Roman Catholic Missionaries
French Canadiens
British employees of the HBC

Life would have continued peacefully for the self governing Metis, but they lived on valuable land
Land that Mr. Selkirk wanted to settle
In the early 1800s, a Scottish nobleman named Lord Selkirk bought a huge piece of land from the Hudson’s Bay. The section of land he purchased was located where the Red and Assiniboine Rivers meet. He purchased the land so dozens of families who were being forced off their land in Scotland would have a place to live and farm.

This was a problem as we already know that the Metis were living in this area. Unfortunately they did not have any official papers saying that they owned the land that they had been farming for more than 100 years. The Metis were concerned that they would be pushed off their land by the new colonists.
It is also important to mention that the North West Company (a huge competitor to the HBC) was good allies with the Metis and they saw the new colony as a way for the HBC to disrupt its trade in the area.
Competition Over Resources
The Governor of the land worried that the colonists would not have enough to eat so he made it
illegal
for the Metis to export buffalo meat, fish and crops from the area. This law was called the
Pemmican

Proclamation
.
The Nor’Westers and the Metis were ANGRY so they set out to push the new colonists of the Selkirk Settlement out of the area. They stole farm equipment and horses. They would even fire their guns close to the settlement in order to scare the colonists.
After the threatening actions of the Metis and Nor’Westers plus a few summers of drought and locusts many of the colonists decided to leave.
Battle of Seven Oaks (1816)
Even though many of the colonists had left, the Metis were still upset with the remaining people. Tensions came to a head one day when a group of Metis led by Cuthbert Grant was riding past Fort Douglas (the headquarters of the colony)
Governor Semple led an armed group out to challenge the Metis. One of the settlers fired upon the Metis and a fierce battle ensued. In the end one Metis and 21 settlers were killed. Many of the Metis involved were arrested and put on trial.
THE METIS MOVE WESTWARD
Over time the area come under the sole control of the British and there were no further clashes between the HBC and NWC. Many of the Metis continued to live in the Red River Area, but many decided to move further west to follow the buffalo.

They decide to set up new colonies in the area of Batoche and the Cypress Hills of the then North West Territory (now a days Saskatchewan)

And the end result is...
The Red River Dispute
For many years people believed the prairies to be a barren wasteland and left it to the First Nations and Metis. Things began to change in 1857, when scientific teams were sent to the west to learn more about the climate and resources of the area. It was reported that Rupert’s Land was well suited to farming. This was good news because good farmland was becoming scarce in Upper Canada.
Following Confederation, the government of Canada began talks with the HBC and in 1869 they purchased Rupert’s Land for $1.5 million.
it all started with a little purchase...
The Metis and First Nations, who had lived on this land, felt the land was there and not to be bought and sold by outsiders.

They worried they would be kicked off of their land or assimilated. They had many questions:
Would they be allowed to be part of the new government?
Would they be able to keep their French Language and Catholic faith?
Would they be able to keep their farms?

The Metis were worried...
Before Canada took control of Rupert’s Land, they sent surveyors into the area. Their job was the prepare the land for the expected rush of immigrants.
Canada's Government didn't help matters...
This meant that they needed to survey the plots of land so people could choose their land and start farming as soon as possible
The government did not warn the Metis or First Nations that the surveyors were coming and that they meant no harm. When the Metis saw the surveyors on their land they got upset and asked what was going on. Unfortunately the surveyors only spoke English and the Metis only spoke French.
The largest concern was that the surveyors were plotting out square sections of land and not paying attention to the long narrow strips of farmland that was similar to the Seigneurial system used in Quebec. This really made the Metis worried that the Canadian Government would take away their land.
Because of the problem with communication, Riel (who spoke English, French and Cree) was sent to try and figure out what was happening. He stood upon the surveyor’s chains and proclaimed, “You shall go no further!” and then told them to leave the Red River area.
Time to Introduce Louis Riel
Riel knew the surveyor and members of the government would return.
Riel helped form National Committee that was organized to protect the Metis’ rights to the land.
He met with Governor McDougall to explain his concerns. He explained that McDougall might as well just return to Ottawa because the Metis had always governed themselves and had no interest in being ruled by the government of Canada.

McDougall did return to Ottawa; only to explain what a pain Riel and the Metis were being.

Riel felt it was time for action
If the Metis had no say about joining Canada, they felt that they should at least be able to negotiate the terms of their citizenship. Riel and the Metis, took control of Fort Garry (a major fur trade centre in the area) and established a Metis Provisional Government.
The Provisional Government was to maintain order among the Metis until an agreement could be made with the Government of Canada. This meant they were officially declaring they had their own government and would continue to govern themselves until Canada agreed to a few things
They really didn’t want to rebel against the government of Canada, they just wanted to be listened to.
Riel feared that if Gov. McDougall was allowed to take charge of the area he would give members of the Orange Order’s Canadian Party all of the power and ignore the Métis. This could mean that the Metis could lose their rights as citizens in the new Province of Manitoba.
Riel and the Metis wrote a Bill of Rights to present to the Government of Canada:
Unfortunately, not everyone saw it their way...
The Orange Party was a political party who agreed with expansionism and felt the Metis were in the way
Riel wanted to make sure that there would be no attacks by the members of the Orange Party. With a group of men, he attacked the home of Dr. John Schulz and took 48 members of the Orange Party back to Fort Garry. These member were put in jail.
Schultz, and many of his Party members, escaped and were planning to attack Fort Garry when his raiders clashed with the Métis and several of his followers were arrested again.

One of these members included Thomas Scott, a belligerent member of the Orange Party who continually insulted the Métis, physically attacked his guards, and threatened Riel’s life.
Scott was impossible to handle
Fellow prisoners asked for him to be put in a separate cell
Métis guards finally insisted that Riel take action

March 1870: Scott put on trial for treason
Scott found guilty (4-2 vote) and sentenced to death
The next day, Scott was executed by a firing squad
It took awhile for Macdonald to hear about what happened to Scott...in the meantime...
April 1870: Macdonald’s government finally hears the case of Riel’s delegates and the Government of Canada agreed to most of Riel’s terms for Manitoba’s admission to Confederation.
Macdonald refused to allow provincial control of public lands, but offered a compromise in the form of a 200,000 hectare land grant to the Métis.
Manitoba entered Confederation May 12, 1870
But Something Must Be Done About Riel!
English Canadians saw Scott as a Protestant martyr (a person who is killed for his/her beliefs) who was cruelly murdered by the Métis.

People in Ontario demanded that Macdonald do something about Riel.
After Manitoba joined Confederation, Macdonald wanted to support the calls for justice coming from Ontario and dispatched 1200 troops to the Red River under the control of Colonel Wolseley
Wolseley was to keep peace in the area until the new Provincial Government could be established
Macdonald instructed Wolseley to treat the Metis government is illegal
When he arrived at Fort Garry it was empty; the Metis had fled.
Riel knew his life was in danger and so he escaped to the United States
Eventually all members of the Metis Provisional Government were granted amnesty (no longer charged of a crime) EXCEPT RIEL
This meant that if Riel returned to Canada he could be arrested and tried for the murder of Thomas Scott.
Riel Hangs Out in the United States
Riel remained in the United States and was even employed as a school teacher. He spent some time in an insane asylum because he came to believe that he was a talking to God and that he was a prophet.
North West Rebellion
For 15 years Riel stayed in the United States hoping that his Metis friends and family were being looked after.
All was not well for the Metis of the North West Territories though
Because of the National Policy, new immigrant settlers continued to arrive and push the Metis out. The newcomers dreamed of creating Manitoba so that it would be more like Ontario and they did not respect the Metis way of life.
The buffalo herds were becoming smaller because of over hunting by the settlers
When Manitoba was created, land was set aside for the Metis. Each family was supposed to receive ownership of 240 acres of land. Unfortunately many did not receive this and they still did not own the land they were living on.
Many Metis realize a French Canadian home in Manitoba was an impossibility and were moving further westward into present day Saskatchewan. One of these new settlements included Lt. Laurent on the South Saskatchewan River.
Things are going badly for the First Nations too:
The Cree, Blackfoot and Sioux are also suffering
Because of the Indian Act, and Land Treaties many have been moved onto Reserve Land
The government had promised to teach them how to farm, but the FN were only given broken farming implement and rotten seeds
the government had promised to provide the FN with food during difficult times and this had not happened.
Tensions are rising and the North West is ripe for rebellion.
One of the new Metis settlements in the NWT was St. Laurent on the South Saskatchewan River. This town had its own elected government, laws and even taxes. The man who was elected in charge was Gabriel Dumont.
Dumont could see that the settlers were continuing to push westward and he worried about the rights of his people He made the decision that it is time to go and get Riel. He is convinced that Riel will be able to make the government listen to the concerns of the people.
Metis Concerns
Land ownership in the North-West was unclear.
Newcomers were moving into the North-West and the Metis feared losing their land and jobs.
They feared being assimilated into the new society that was emerging
The buffalo continued to disappear as did the livelihoods of the Metis
The federal government was ignoring their problems. they had sent 15 petitions asking for rights and land and they had all be ignored.
First Nation Concerns
The government had not kept some of the promises it had made to provide food rations and farming equipment
the buffalo continued to disappear
some First Nations were starving because the government restricted their movement which made it difficult to hunt and find food. The government had promised food rations as repayment, but these had not been provided.
Newcomers continued to move into the North-West and they were worried they would lose what little land they had left
The First Nations wanted a large territory in which all of the Plains nations could live, but the government only gave them small reserves that kept the different tribes and nations separated from each other.
Things are so bad, Riel decides he needs to return to Canada
Riel was not the same person he was before the Red River Resistance, and has suffered a series of emotional breakdowns and had even spent several years in an asylum.
He was convinced he was able to talk to God and we was the “prophet of the grasslands”
He had begun to call himself David
He believed that when “the avenging angel” Gabriel Dumont had asked him to return to help the Metis the “hand of God was present.”
Riel returns with Dumont to the NWT of Canada (What is now Saskatchewan). He is
not interested in an
armed rebellion. Riel dreams of bringing the First Nations, Metis and settlers together.
He sends a petition to the government of Canada, on behalf of the Metis, First Nations and settlers, asking for Provincial status and a voice in the government.
Macdonald was not interested in listening to Riel and essentially ignored his request.
By March of 1885, Riel has grown tired of waiting and decides it is time to take action. What better way than to use the tactics that had been so successful in Manitoba.
Riel takes over Batoche, established a Provisional Government and sends a Bill of Rights to the government asking for the following:
That all land issues be solved and the Metis be granted clear land ownership
Two new provinces be created west of Manitoba
Food rations for the First Nations
But things are different now...
Things were a little different in Canada now and this move was risky:
Canada now has the NWMP whose sole job was to keep peace in the North-West Territories
Canada also has a railway that can transport the NWMP quickly into Regina

Riel Loses Support
The prairie settlers do not like the the idea of an armed rebellion and quickly drop their support of Riel.
The Catholic Church also drops their support of Riel as he is calling for violence.
Riel Still Has Followers Though
The French Metis continue to support Riel
First Nations chiefs, Big Bear and Poundmaker also join their tribes into the rebellion
Tensions rise and the fighting begins
Battle of Duck Lake
On March 26, Dumont and a group of Metis defeat the NWMP at Duck Lake forcing the Police to retreat.

Dumont wanted to pursue them, but Riel wouldn’t let him.
Battle of Frog Lake
A few days later two bands of breakaway Cree warriors join the resistance and battle the NWMP. Big Bear who had earlier resisted the call to the reserves and Poundmaker the adopted son of Crowfoot lead the revolt. Big Bear's warriors attack the Police Post (Fort) of Duck Lake and kill nine people. Poundmaker and his warriors move on to attack Battleford. The remaining NWMP and neighbouring farm families are allowed to leave unharmed.
Battle of Batoche
The federal government rushes 5000 soldiers to the North West on the newly built railway. The army advanced on the village of Batoche where Dumont and Riel were waiting.
The fighting began and soon the Metis ran out of bullets and were melting down lead plates to make their own bullets. Then they resorted to firing stones and nails. During the battle, Riel would walk back and forth in front of the gun fire and proclaim, “In the name of the Father. In the name of the Son! In the name of the Holy Spirit, Fire!”
General Middleton was in charge of taking down the Metis at Batoche and he had them outgunned with the newest technology - The Gatling Gun.
After four days of fighting the 300 Metis, the Cree warriors and their allies were either captured or surrendered.
53 soldiers from Ontario had died and 111 were injured
35 First Nation and Metis were killed
many of the Metis were arrested and put in prison
Riel escaped Batoche, but surrendered
Big Bear and Poundmaker also surrendered
Dumont escaped to the United States and became the “Hero of the Half Breed Rebellion” in Wild Bill’s Wild West Show
Riel was charged and tried with high treason (betrayal of one’s country)
Riel’s lawyers told him it would be best if he plead insanity. Riel refused and then chose to make his own statements and act as his own lawyer. In the end he was found guilty and sentenced to hang.
Prime Minister Macdonald twice delayed Riel’s execution as he had the power to stop the stay (stop) the execution.
Many people in Ontario (the province with the highest voting population) felt that Riel was a traitor and a murderer. They wanted him dead.
Many French Canadiens in Quebec (the province with the second highest voting populations) saw Riel as a hero because he had defended the language rights and Catholic religion in the west.
In the end Macdonald sided with Ontario -the side that would help him win the next election.
Riel was hanged in Regina on November 16, 1885.
When news reached Quebec they dropped the flags to half mast and Macdonald was burned in the streets. To the French Canadiens this confirmed that their Confederation ‘partnership’ with English Canada was unequal.
The Consequences...
The French Canadiens of Canada continue to foster the attitude that the Government doesn't really care about them and that they are treated unfairly
Things Really Didn’t Change for the Metis
The government issued land certificates to the Metis to ensure land ownership. Often the Metis simply sold their land certificate and moved on.
Things Got Worse for the First Nations
Many aboriginals were punished for their involvement in the rebellion. At least 8 men were hanged
Entire communities were punished by having their government food rations stopped.
First Nations were told to stay on their reserves unless they had permission from the government agent in charge of their reserve, to travel.
Things Got Better for the Government
The restrictions of Aboriginal movement opened up more land for the settlers and more farmers moved into the prairies
The restrictions also allowed the further expansion of the railway without further resistance
The Biggest Benefit of All….
Before the North West Rebellion, the CPR and the railway were bankrupt and Macdonald was on the verge of losing his sea to sea transcontinental railway.

During the Red River Resistance it took 3 months to get troops into Manitoba. With the new railway, the government was able have the first troops in the North West within 10 days. Parliament agreed to put more money into the building of the railway and within a month 5000 troops had been transported to the area. The government could now see the benefit of the railway and more tax dollars were used to continue to push the railway across the continent.
The Last Spike was laid on November 7, 1885 in Craigellachie. Macdonald had successfully quelled the Metis, and Aboriginal uprising with the NWMP, encouraged more farming immigrants to move into the prairies and now had a transcontinental railway.
Riel: Hero or Traitor?
Red River: Rebellion or Resistance?
The National Policy
Transportation
Policy
Immigration
Policy
Economic
Policy
Prime Minister Macdonald believed that Canada needed three things to utilized the resources of the land and make Canada more prosperous.
First of all the country needed a higher population in order to harvest the resources of Canada
To achieve this, Macdonald needed to find a way to encourage more immigrants interested in farming into the country.
Secondly, Macdonald knew that he needed to create a transportation system to quickly move both people and resources.
To achieve this, the transcontinental railway needed to built
Lastly, a strong national economy was needed in order to create jobs and build farming and other resources in Canada.
To do this the railway could be used to increase trade across the country. In addition Protective tariffs were put in place.
By expanding Confederation, the government of Canada would have greater access to the natural resources of the land.
Natural Resources are the parts of nature that people can use. The include:
Fish
Fur
Land
Trees
Water
Oil and Gas
Minerals
In Canada's early history, fish and furs were the main resource. Now the wanted resource of Canada was its LAND!
By purchasing Rupert's Land, the government of Canada knew the country would face an increase in immigration by European farmers searching for new land to farm
But first, Canada had to prepare...
#1 Set the Borders and Boundaries
The government could not give/sell land to settlers until it knew exactly what land it had.
In the early 1870s, surveyors marked the border (49th parallel) between Canada and the USA
Surveyors carefully measured the land and marked the border. Every 1.6km they planted an iron post. Every 5 km they build a low mound of earth.
Surveyors also continued to survey and map out the township land divisions so incoming settlers could easily choose their farm.
Many settlers selected their farm while still in Europe and had no idea what their land was like until they arrived.
#2 Make it SAFE
In the mid 1800s, because their was no clear border, Americans would come into Rupert's Land and trade whiskey for fur and buffalo robes.
Selling alcohol was illegal, but no one was around to enforce this law.
The main area the Americans liked to come was Whoop Up Country in what is now southern Saskatchewan.
American's also came to Whoop up to hunt wolves
These men would sell wolf pelts to make money in the US.
When a buffalo died, the wolves would feed on s carcass. The wolfers started put poison in the buffalo carcasses and the wolves would die.
Unfortunately the wolves were not the only animals to eat the poisoned meat. Many for the dogs belonging to the First Nations people in the area also ate the poison. Needless to say, the Americans and the First Nations did not get along
Prime Minister Macdonald realized that something needed to be done to:
Show the US that Canada controlled the area
Protect the First Nations from American outlaws
Help new settlers
Keep peace between the new settlers and the First Nations
The Cypress Hills Massacre ensures this happens...
On June of 1873, a group of American wolfers thought that a tribe of First Nations people in the area had stolen their horses; they hadn't. The wolfers ambushed the First Nation camp and murdered as many as 36 men, women and children
Couple this with the Red River Dispute in 1869, and Macdonald created the North West Mounted Police.
The recruits were trained in Manitoba and in July 1874, 300 mounted police headed west in what is known as the Great March.
The Great March didn't go perfectly as food supplies ran low, horses died of lack of water and the entire expedition even got lost. It was with the help of Metis guides that they arrived safely.
The NWMP established Fort Macleod, Fort Whoop Up and Fort Walsh. Another group went North and established Fort Edmonton and Fort Brisebois (Calgary)
The main role of the NWMP was to make the territory peaceful and to ensure that people obeyed the law. They performed many tasks:
Cleared out the whiskey traders
Arrested lawbreakers of all types and put them on trial
delivered the mail
fought grass fires and assisted new farmers
fought the second Metis Uprising (North West Rebellion) in 1885
The NWMP came out to keep the Indians under control so they wouldn't bother the White people... so they had a whole bunch of soldiers present when they signed the treaty - some people were scared."
- Helen Meguinis Tsuu T'ina elder"
"If the police had not come to the country, where would we all be now? bad men and whiskey were killing us so fast that very few, indeed, would have been left today. The police have protected us as the feathers of the bird protect if from the frosts of winter." - Isapo Muxika - Siksika chief
"The Indians welcomed our residence among them, and looked upon us as their friends and deliverers from the many evils they had suffered at the hands of unprincipled white men"
- Cecil Denny NWMP
THE RAILWAY CONNECTS THE COUNTRY
Work officially began on the transcontinental railway in 1870. Because of this Macdonald would hoped that the colony of British Columbia would agree to join Confederation.
BC becomes the 6th province to join Confederation in 1871 when promised the railway would reach them in less than 10 years
Before the railway could be built, surveyors had to find the best route to cross the country.
Two routes were proposed a northern and southern route
In the end the southern route was chosen:
The land was flatter and had fewer trees
Coal deposits near Lethbridge could fuel the steam engines
The route was closer to the border and this would ensure that more people would use the Canadian railway instead of the American one.
The railway had already purchased a lot of land in Southern Canada and would profit from it sale
Scientists had reported that the land in southern Canada was well suited for farming (unfortunately they were kind of wrong)
Macdonald has a route and now has to choose a company to build it
The company that received the job would get
$30 million in subsidy
$20 million in land grants
business tax exclusion
preferential treatment
Two companies were in the running
Canada Pacific Railway (which promised no ties to American companies)
Inter-Oceanic Railway Company (which had ties to American companies)
Macdonald grants to contract to the Canada Pacific Railway but very soon finds himself in trouble...
It is discovered that the Conservative party (and Macdonald) received a very large party contribution from the man who owned Canada Pacific Railway.
Then a telegram was discovered from Macdonald asking for another $10,000!
There was a huge meeting of the House of Commons where Macdonald gave a four hour speech basically saying he hadn't done anything wrong and that it wasn't a bribe but a political Party donation and anything he had done was simply for the good of the country.
Lastly, it was discovered that the Canada Pacific Railway did indeed have connections to American companies.
In the end Macdonald was asked to resign as Prime Minister and Alexander Mackenzie (Liberal) was appointed as Prime Minister by the Governor General.
The Pacific Scandal - Canada's First Political Scandal
All politics aside, building railway was hard miserable work
Survey crews crossed the country looking for the cheapest and most direct way for the tracks to be laid. Survey crews lived in tents as they crossed mountains and prairies and were away from their families for months or years. The work was dangerous, the weather often very cold and there was little food.
Many surveyors got frostbite or scurvy, were attacked by grizzly bears, died in fires or drowned.
Many people wanted the railway to go through their town because it would mean prosperity would follow.
To lay the track, crews had to cut trees and clear a
wide area along the path made by surveyors.
Then teams of animals pulled scrapers and plows to level the track bed.
Track-laying crews laid ties across the bed with steel rails on either side and hammered iron spikes on either side of the rails. Lastly, gravel was poured on it to hold it all in place.
Other crews built bridges and trestles across rivers and canyons.
Blasting crews used dynamite to
blast through rock
Many of the men who worked on the railway in BC were Chinese immigrants
In 1879 work began on one of the hardest and most costly parts to build—the Fraser Canyon section. To build 15 tunnels through the mountains, they needed 7,000 workers, over 6,000 of which were Chinese.
Chinese workers were paid $1.50 a day and had to pay for their own equipment,
White labourers were paid up to $3.00 a day and were given equipment.
Chinese workers also had to pay $4 per week for room and board
Chinese workers were often given the most dangerous jobs, such as blasting, causing death for many.
It is estimated that four Chinese workers died for each mile through the Fraser Canyon.
Men also died from poor eating, sickness, poor clothing and poor working conditions.
This work was done throughout the entire year during all types of weather and conditions
blinding heat and bone chilling cold
swarms mosquitoes and other insects
Overall the living conditions of the work teams were less than comfortable:
Slept in dark smoky bunkhouses
Slept on straw mats that were infested with rats and fleas
Ate salted pork, corned beef, molasses, beans and tea for just about every meal.
Negative Consequences of the Railway
Many residents in the prairies felt it was unfair that the CPR received land for free
The farmers were upset because the CPR charged them too much to ship their crops
Without competition, the CPR could charge as much as they liked for shipping and transportation costs.
The Metis and First Nations were concerned by the number of immigrants who were moving into the territory.
Macdonald once said, "Without the Chinese, there would be no railway."
Once the railway was completed, the Chinese workers were fired on the spot and forced to find their own way to a new city.
In time the government of Canada instituted the Chinese Head Tax making it next to impossible for the Chinese workers to bring their families to Canada.
Positive Consequences of the Railway
BC joined Confederation
CPR shareholders made money
Ontario farmers could grow and move crops by rail to market
The NW Rebellion was quickly ended because the NWMP were quickly transported into the area
Manufactures in the East had a way to bring their products to the west
BC loggers could sell more lumber because of all the new homes being built in prairie towns
Whatever happened to Macdonald?
By 1878 John A Macdonald was re-elected back into office and once again was Prime Minister. It was fitting that he was leading the country when the railway was officially finished in November 1885.
POPULATE THE COUNTRY
New farming communities became the backbone of the growing Canadian economy.
Remember the surveyors that were sent out and caused the Red River Rebellion?
Their job was to divide the land up into large chunks called townships
Each township was divided into 36 squares called sections
Each section was divided into four quarter sections
Each quarter section was divided into 64 hectares (160 acres)
The government then set aside two sections that were later used to pay for a local school
Some of the land was for the HBC in agreement of the sale of Rupert's land and still other sections with to the CPR to pay for the building of the railway.
In 1872 the government passed the Dominion Lands Act:
The head of any household could apply for land
Any male over the age of 21 could apply for land
Each applicant received a quarter section of land (homestead) for $10
After 1882, women could apply too
Each applicant promised three things:
Live on the land for at least 6 months of the year
Build a house
Start farming
Once these were fulfilled, the applicant got to keep the land
Homesteading was difficult:
Many farmers were poor and couldn't afford seeds, tools, livestock or the materials to build a home
Nature made life more difficult with locusts, drought, frost and hail
Many gave up
The first campaign to bring more farmers to the west targeted people living in Ontario. In fact so many Ontarians moved to Manitoba, it got the nickname "Little Ontario"
It is important to note that there was not campaign to bring people for Quebec into the west.
One group of immigrants were the Mennonites
They moved to Canada to escape religious persecution and conscription into the Russian army
The first group took up land of Winnipeg
In all, they started more than 100 communities in the West
Another immigrant group came from Iceland
They came to Canada to escape a volcanic disaster in 1875
They were given 800 square km to farm
They were allowed to speak their language and keep their customs.
Eventually they also settled in Alberta
THE LAST BEST WEST
Up until the 1890s there was very little immigration into the prairies and then everything changed...
in 1881, only 4 381 256 people lived in Canada.
In the NWT
41.5% of the population was Metis
41.2 % of the population was English Canadians
The rest was Aboriginal
Wilfred Laurier, Canada's first French Canadian Prime Minister knew that the only way Canada's economy would grow is with more people. He had to find a way to encourage more immigration into Canada.
Much of the labor was done by Chinese Immigrants in BC and Ukrainian and Italian Immigrants in the Prairies
The Chinese head tax was a fixed fee charged to each Chinese person entering Canada. The head tax was first levied after the Canadian parliament passed the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885 and was meant to discourage Chinese people from entering Canada after the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Initially in 1885, it was set at $50 and by 1903 had reached its peak of $500!

It was in 1896 that the new Minister of the Interior, Clifford Sifton, took over the responsibility for immigration and settlement in Canada. His focus was to populate the North West with farmers. But How?
By advertising Canada in a vigorous Great Canadian Travelling Road Show recruiting campaign, called the Last Best West, aimed at bringing in potential agriculturalists, farm labourers and domestic servants and peasants from
United States (his main target group)
Great Britain Central and Eastern Europe (Galicians, Polish, Hungarian, etc.).
By today's standards, Sifton was a bit racist. Sifton told his deputy, "
We don't want anything but agricultural labourers and farmers or people who are coming for the purpose of engaging in agriculture, whether as farmers or farm labourers". He believed certain people – especially "northerners" – were better suited than others for farming. He liked Scots, Scandinavians, Germans and British (particularly northern English), welcomed "northern Slavs" and didn't want Jewish or southern Italian immigrants. Sifton is reported to have said, "I don't want anything done to facilitate Italian immigration.
"
Sifton saw Canada's West as a "product" to be sold. With his Last Best West slogan he set about to change the negative international image of Canada's prairies.
Cold was a word no longer used. Immigration agents used words such as invigorating and bracing.

Snow was never mentioned
People were lured to the Prairie West by one of the largest and most extensive advertising campaigns the world had ever witnessed.

Or as Pierre Berton wrote in his book, The Promised Land, Sifton saturated the world with "propaganda about the Canadian West". By 1896, over 65,000 pamphlets had been sent out by the Immigration Department; four years later in 1900, the number had risen to 1 million.
The campaign was a success and the people came by the thousands!
For many immigrants, the move to Western Canada was a trap. Life there was much harder than the advertisements had led them to believe
When the immigrants arrived they had to first build a home before winter arrived. As there were few trees on the prairies, many build sod homes or soddies
Only later, when they had more money were they able to build a more permanent wood-frame home
The Betrayal of Quebec
Despite farm land being scarce in Quebec, the government did not advertise there or offer free train passages for the French Canadians to become farmers in the prairies.
It was clear the the government had a vision of Canada having only one language as they encouraged Anglophones into the west.
Push Factors (Reasons to Leave Home Country)
High population and not enough land in home country
Religious persecution
Political persecution
Natural disasters
Affordable transportation
Pull Factors (Reasons to Come to Canada)
Free or cheap land
Jobs
Completed railway
Better machinery
Improved farming techniques
Growing demand for wheat
Religious and political freedom
Friends and family
So where did most of Canada's immigrants come from? (Before WW1)
40% British Empire (United Kingdom - England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland)
32% United States
19% Other European Countries
4% Northern Europe
2% Russia
2% Asia
Was the Government of Canada the only group encouraging immigration?
No!
Churches and religious groups also took a special interest in immigration as they felt the Canadian west would offer their members a better life free from religious persecution.
For example the Doukhobors from Russia were pacifists and refused to fight in the Russian army. Canada offered them a safe haven
An Anglican Minister, named Isaac Barr believed that the Canadian West should be filed with English speaking Anglicans so he placed ads in British newspapers calling for people to immigrate to Canada
In 1903 he lead an expedition of 2684 men, women and children from England. Unfortunately, his was not a well planned journey.
The vessel he arranged was only supposed to hold 900, but he crammed them all on anyway.
When the people arrived in St. John they discovered that no railway passage had been arranged for them.
Many travelers lost their luggage and possessions
Once they arrived in Saskatoon they had to travel by oxen cart, but most did not know how to drive one.
In the end the colonists fired Barr as their guide and hired Reverend George Lloyd to help them. He was experienced and they named their main town after him (Lloydminster)
Another group were the Hutterites who were also from Russia. They too were escaping religious persecution.
They initially moved to the United States, but during WWI, faced persecution because they spoke German. In the end they moved to Alberta and Manitoba where they were free from military service and could run their own schools. Today there are more than 25,000 Hutterites living in Alberta
British Home Children
Between 1867 and 1924, 100,000 British children were sent to Canada
Some were orphans and some came from families who were too poor to care for them, but they all came hoping to join Canadian families
Some came with religious organizations
Some came with charitable organizations
It is obvious that the government was looking for white English speaking farmers to come to Canada. Canada was not interested in encouraging :
Asians
African Americans
Italians
Greeks
Jews
South Slavics
BASICALLY ANYONE WHO LOOKED DIFFERENT
FRANCOPHONES IN THE WEST
Despite the government not encouraging further migration of Francophones to the West, they still left their mark.
French Canadians and Metis names many rivers, lakes and regions in the West
Batoche and Bellegarde (Saskatchewan)
Beaumont, Morinville, St. Paul and Lac La Biche (Alberta
Farms along the Red and Saskatchewan Rivers are still long and narrow
Early Francophone business gave people jobs and helped create the economy of Western Canada
Western Canadian Collieries (coal mines) in the Crowsnest pass
Revillon Freres a major Francophone trading company had a warehouse in Edmonton
The first bank of Saskatchewan was created by Francophone residents.
The Canadian government did not encourage internal migration of French Canadians into Western Canada, but the Catholic Church still encourage French Catholics to migrate.
Francophones from France and the Eastern States, such as New England were also encouraged to move to Western Canada.
In 1886, the Francophone population in the prairies was 16,000 with half of them being Metis.
By 1921 the number had climbed to 137,000 and Francophones made up about 7% of the population in the prairies.
Missionaries and nuns also started hospitals and schools throughout the prairies.
WHAT HAPPENED TO THE FIRST NATIONS?
The First nations and Metis were the first to feel the effects of new settlement on the West.
The buffalo was becoming scarce due to over hunting by settlers
More miners and trappers were moving into the northern lands.
The best hunting land of the prairies was being used for farming
The new settlers continued to bring diseases that were dangerous to the First nations.
THE NUMBERED TREATIES
From 1871 to 1921 the First nations made 11 treaties with the Canadian Government.
The reason the government made these treaties was to:
Gain control of the land
Gain control of natural resources
Gain control of the First nations decrease the possibility of war between the homesteaders and the First Nations.
The First nations agreed to these treaties because:
they wanted protect their rights to land and natural resources
they were promised access food if times got tough
they were promised money
they saw the treaty as an alternative to war
they were promised help in setting up farms
they hoped to ensure their people and culture would survive.
Each treaty was different but overall the government promised:
Cash payments
Fishing gear and farming equipment
Reserve land
There was an important First Nation policy that the government forgot to mention...
ASSIMILATION
The government hoped that over time the First Nations would forget their cultural practice and would assimilate into the white mans world.
The government tried to help this process along
RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS
The children for First Nation's families were removed from their homes and sent to residential boarding schools
They were forbidden to speak their own language
They were forbidden to practice their beliefs and cultural practices.
These children were cut off from their roots.
1867 INDIAN ACT
The government of Canada determined who was a status Indian and who was not
Status Indians were considered wards of the country (essentially children)
Encouraged First Nations to give up their Indian status to become full citizens of Canada
BUILD THE ECONOMY
The third part of the National Policy was to build a strong economy.
Farming was key in the West
Manufacturing was key in the East
By building both types of industries, Canada would create jobs for Canadians and new settlers.
The government also needed to encourage people to purchase Canadian products instead of American ones.
American factories could produce and sell goods at a lower cost that Canadian factories. Therefore most people purchased the less expensive American product.
Macdonald then added a protective tariff (TAX) to all products crossing the border. This increased the cost and made it more expensive than Canadian products. This encouraged Canadians to buy Canadian made products and keep the money in Canada.
Some AGREED with the tariff
Manufacturing created jobs
Manufacturing makes the economy more diverse
Canada's industries are young and need help growing
The tariffs keep foreign products out and encourage Canadians to buy local
The tariff generates a lot of money and helps pay for social programs
Some DISAGREED with the tariff
Canadians would end up paying more for goods
Farms pay more for tools, equipment and seeds, but they can only earn what the buyers are willing to pay
Most industry was in Ontario and Quebec but Westerners still had to pay more for goods with no real benefits.
THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE NATIONAL POLICY
Grain replaced furs as Canada's main export
farms covered the prairies replacing the buffalo
the railway replaced the canoe and wagon
The First Nations and Metis were neglected
The strength of Canada encouraged PEI to join confederation 1873
Alberta and Saskatchewan joined Confederation in 1905
Canada is considered a pluralistic society (many cultures living and working together peacefully for the good of the society
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