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The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde - Introduction
Transcript of The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde - Introduction
.. and that doesn't mean pierced, dyed and dressed in black.
It deals with the relation of the baser parts of a man to his nobler-of capacity for evil that exists in the most generous natures, and it expresses these things in a fable which is a wonderfully happy invention.
- Henry James, American Novelist
The Victorian Era (1837 - 1901)
: the idea of the "split personality" or "alter ego" of a person
Very popular in Victorian culture
Also seen in:
said there were 3 parts of a person's psychology:
: unconscious/impulsive (child-like)
: conscious part (adult)
: ethical/moral (from society)
The "Goths" = a Germanic tribal culture.
Originally, Gothic meant anything "of, relating to, or resembling the Goths, their civilization or language"
- UC Davis
Later came to refer to:
At one point it meant "uncouth" or "medieval"
Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Stevenson
Author & Historical Context
Took shape in England from 1790 - 1830.
The Gothic Novel
1850 - Born in Edinburgh, Scotland
Son of a civil engineer
Studied law & literature at Edinburgh University
In his 20s, became very sick with a respiratory issue that would affect him for his entire life
It was then that he decided to be a writer.
1879 - Travels to California to marry Fanny Osborne, an American 10 years his elder
This trip almost killed him!
Settled in Samoa because of the climate
Died there in 1894
Categorized as Romantic literature.
Incorporated horror and romantic qualities.
Acts as a reaction against rigidity and formality of other Romantic forms.
Not limited to this time period
Takes roots in the Middle Ages
Still written by authors like Stephen King.
During this period, many of the highly regarded pieces were written.
This helped to define the novel's form
Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde
The Strange Case of
London in the 1880's
formerly grand neighborhood
now in decay
Cavendish Square = area of pronounced doctors & lawyers
in Soho (a low-class part of London known for immigrants)
Began as an essayist and travel writer
gave him a place as a fiction writer
Jekyll & Hyde
that made his reputation.
Stevenson wanted to pronounce Jekyll as "GEE-kull," which would have been natural in Scottish.
The masses preferred the current pronunciation.
On Stevenson's Inspiration for
Nightmare-inspired and written in only 6 days.
Modeled on the case of a respectable Edinburgh businessman who was a gambler, adulterer, armed robber and murderer by night.
Jekyll and Hyde
is considered a novella.
is shorter and simpler than a novel, but is still longer and more complex than a short story.
Historians discovered his life-long illness to have been tuberculosis.
Could have been the rightful inventor of the sleeping bag!
He brought a large, fleece-lined sleeping sack with him on his travels through France.
Described in his book,
Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes
Maximum Invaded Territories
Ruled by Theodoric the Great (523 A.D.)
Setting is greatly influential
Evokes atmosphere of horror and dread
Portrays deterioration of the world
Decay and ruined scenery
Shell of once-thriving and treasured placed
Example: Castles, abbeys, respected homes
Often very dark and mysterious
Beauty and the Beast
Characteristics of Gothic Literature
Terror (psychological and physical)
Archetypes of Gothic Literature
The Gothic (or "Byronic") Hero
Protagonist who is usually isolated (voluntarily or involuntarily)
Obsessive in their individual quest for self-realization
Burdened by a secret guilt or sorrow
Strong, yet sensitive
Wise beyond their years
Often hard-headed, mocking and/or proud
Epitome of evil due to:
His own fall from grace
Other Gothic Stock Characters:
By 1880, there were 4.5 million people living in London.
Victoria rules in England for 64 years!
ruling a vast empire
world's leading economic and military power
railroads, postal system
cities became populated
A Class Divided
All of these
upset many Britons:
Poverty is a growing problem
Cities are becoming more crowded
Women entering the workforce
Victorian society was divided
Still, all were expected to behave
Houses should be pristine
They should be proper and elegant
Calvin vs. Darwin
Personality and the Doppelganger
Interpreting the "split personality" and "alter ego"
In very broad terms,
stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things (not only in salvation, but in life).
Stevenson's parents were Calvinists and he railed against the idea.
posed the idea of evolution and the concept of "only the strong survive."
People struggled with the two at-odds theories.
rigid moral expectations
of society led many upper-class Londoners to
lead double lives
Victorians became interested in the issue of
private self vs. public self
How might they identify with
Stevenson's moral upbringing:
Humans are naturally bad
People struggle towards good
= people as "blank slates"
Society shapes a person into good or bad
Society Makes Us Evil
Freud believed that humans are strongly influenced by impulses that they are not aware of.
What do you think?
Are good and evil innate qualities?
Is it society that makes us who we are?
Are people basically good
Can "good" people do "bad" things?
Is everyone capable of doing horrible things?
What exactly constitutes "good" and "bad?
Hence it came about that I concealed my pleasures; and that when I reached years of reflection, and began to look around me and take stock of my progress and position in the world, I stood already committed to a profound life of duplicity." - Henry Jekyll