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Transcript of Explorers
Marco Polo In Cathay (China)
Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese.
When he became 10, both of his parents
died even though the case of the death
was unknown. He later on became a soldier for the Portuguese navy. After being a soldier, he moved to Spain.
Ferdinand in Spain
When Ferdinand got interested in finding
a spice route to the Indies, he requested to
King Charles I of Spain to help him get ships and crew to get to his destination. When he got the crew, ships and equipment, he traveled to
the tip of South America.
By: Amirhossein, Koroush and Jason
Thank you for listening to our presentation
Marco Polo Returns To Italy
Marco Polo returned to Italy, Venice in the winter of 1295. The same year Marco Polo returned, war happened between Genoa and Venice, and Marco joined the army. At 1298, Genoa won the war with ships and sent the people of the army in jail. In jail, Marco met Rustichello who was a writer. He told Rustichello about his journey and the findings of jade, porcelain, silk, ivory, and other riches of Asia (the festival of the Emperor's birthday that everything from clothing to ornaments were made out of gold). so Rustichello would make a story of his travel. After the story was done, the people of Venice didn't believe him and called him, "man of a million lies." When he was dying (on 1324 at the age of 70), a priest entered his room and asked him if he wanted to admit that his story wasn't true, but Marco Polo replied, "I didn't tell half of what I saw because no one would have believed me."
Traveling To Cathay (China)
The Polos still carried on their journey even though they entered a war zone. They passed through Armenia, Persia, Afghanistan, over the Pamirs, and finally to China.
On May 1275, Marco, Niccolo and Maffeo arrived to the original capital of Kublai Khan at Shang-tu. 3 and half years had passed since they left Venice and they had traveled a total of 5600 miles on the journey. Marco Polo then became a favourite of the Khan. He served at the Khan's court and was sent on special missions in China, Burma and India. Kublai Khan said that Marco Polo was an official of the Privy Council in 1277 and for 3 years, he is going to be a tax inspector in Yanzhou (a city in the Grand Canal). He saw how they made a festival of the Khan's birthday by using gold. After 17 years of staying, the Polos decided to go home because they were worried that Kublai Khan would die and the Cathay people will imprison or kill the Polos because they were the Kublai Khan's favourites.
The Great Kublai Khan
Rustichello of Pisa
Lewis was born on August 18, 1774, near Charlottesville, Virginia. He had 1 sister and 1 brother. He was also neighbors with Thomas Jefferson. In 1780, Lewis' whole family moved to Broad River Valley, Georgia but he moved back for better education and later on, his family also moved back.
William Clark was born on August 1, 1770, in Caroline County, Virginia. William Clark had five brothers and four sisters. On 1784, his family moved to Louisville, Kentucky to continue their westward expansion.
Meriwether Lewis At Hohenwald, Tennessee
William Clark moved to St. Louis to live with his son, Meriwether Lewis Clark, in 1838 and died there on September 1, 1838.
Lewis died on October 11, 1809 from several gunshots at Grinder's Stand, Hohenwald, Tennessee.
Lewis and Clark
In South America
While in South America, he avoided
ships sent from the king to make Ferdinand
departure from his Journey. From here
he traveled into the Philippines and other
South America (the tip)
Ferdinand in Guam
While leaving South America he entered Guam which is these 3 islands. He made Guam part of Spanish Territory and left off the The Philippines. Later on, Guam became part of the American territory during the American-Spanish war. Later in the 40's, these islands were attacked by Japanese forces. The Americans won the battle and so it came that these little Islands have gone through a lot.
Ferdinand in Malacca
While in Malacca, Ferdinand occupied it as Spanish territory and befriended the former king. The king asked Ferdinand to go to Mactan in the Philippines to defeat and capture the rivals land.
President Thomas Jefferson
President Jefferson was the president of United States of America from 1801-1809. He bought the Louisiana Territory on April 30, 1803. He wanted to know what was there in the Louisiana Territory that he didn't know and he hoped that there was a water route from the Columbia river to the Missouri rivers. So, he sent Lewis and Clark off to a adventure.
Lewis and Clark met each other on 1803 when Lewis chose Clark for his partner on the expedition. On May 14, 1804, Lewis, Clark, thirty four soldiers and ten civilians started their adventure/expedition at St. Louis, Missouri but their first city they actually started off was from the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 30, 1803 to the St. Louis from the Ohio River.
President Thomas Jefferson
U.S.A., South Dakota
U.S.A., Mouth of the Columbia River (Pacific Ocean)
Lewis and Clark
Lewis and Clark
When Lewis and Clark were continuing the expedition, they found a women called Sacajawea that led them safely and translated to them. When they were halfway there of their journey, they built a block house so they would stay the winter of 1804-1805 there. They also collected species and Clark wrote information in a diary.
Ferdinand in Mactan
While in the Mactan islands, Ferdinand went to the rulers of the island and started a war between his boats and the people of the island. He battled the people but he was hugely outnumbered and short on men. While fighting, Ferdinand got hurled in the face with a bamboo stick and arm, and got stabbed with bamboo sticks many times after. Out of the 150 crew that battled that day, only 18 survived. After the battle they escaped and made they're way back to Spain (without Ferdinand).
On November 1805, they finally made it to the Pacific Ocean, and Sacajawea left because they didn't need her help anymore. They also collected over 300 different species. When they started going back, they decided to separate (Lewis retracing their route and Clark returning by the route of the Yellowstone). They rejoined again and continued the journey back together. They returned to St. Louis on September 20, 1806 and the expedition was about two years and four months. Clark also showed his diary to President Jefferson about what they did.
Robert Edwin Peary
Robert Edwin Peary was born in Cresson, Pennsylvania on May 6, 1856. He was the only child in his family. Robert's father died after they moved somewhere in the southern Maine. He joined the U.S. Navy in 1881 and worked there as a civil engineer. He then decided to go to the North Pole.
U.S.A., Washington D.C.
Robert Edwin Peary
On the year 1911, Robert retired from the U.S. Navy. Robert Edwin Peary is a important person because he was the first person and the first American explorer to explore and reach North Pole. He also is a important person because he made a lot of trips to North Pole. He died on February 20, 1920 in Washington D.C.
Journey to North Pole
Robert Edwin Peary decided to go to North Pole and become the first person that explored it. He set off and met Matthew Henson on the way on November 1887 which he also was interested exploring the North Pole. They got to the North Pole on April 6, 1909 and became the first people to reach it. They explored the North Pole and after that day, they made a lot of trips to North Pole. People also supported them by giving them money.
Matthew Henson was born on August 8, 1866 in Nanjemoy, Maryland which is in Washington D.C. When Matthew was still a child, his parents died. So he went and lived with his uncle who paid for his education until he died. After his uncle died, Matthew got a job as a dishwasher. When he finally was twelve, he got a job as a cabin boy on a merchant ship called Katie Hines. Then, in November 1887, Matthew met Robert Edwin Peary and went on the trip with him.
U.S.A., New York
Matthew Henson died on March 9, 1955 in the city of the Bronx at the age of 88. He is remembered as one of the important people in the world.
Robert Edwin Peary
Robert Edwin Peary decided to explore Greenland. In 1886, he got to Greenland and explored it with dog sled, and also found evidence that Greenland was a island. He returned to Greenland on 1891, and 1893-1895 to transport large meteorites to the U.S.A.
Captain James Cook
Captain James Cook was born on October 27, 1728 and he was born in Marton In Cleveland (which now they call it Middlesbrough), UK. His father was a farmer at a small village in Middlesbrough. When he was at the age17, he moved to the coast and finding work with a coal merchant. In 1755, he volunteered to work for the Royal Navy as a sea man. By 1757, Captain Cook had passed his master’s examination of a sea man. In 1762, he got married with Elizabeth Batts. He had 6 kids, Joseph Cook, Elizabeth Cook, George Cook, James Cook, Hugh Cook and Nathaniel Cook.
In 1766,the Royal Community told Captain Cook to travel to the pacific ocean to observe and record the movement of Venus across the sun after Captain Cook got promoted. He was also named as the commander of the first voyage. The first voyage started on August 26,1768 in England. He sailed and arrived at Tahiti on April 13, 1769 where he observed from the movement of Venus but the results wasn't what they hoped.
First Voyage Continued
After the observation was done, Captain Cook started the second part of the voyage, to search the south Pacific for signs of the southern continent of Terra Australis (Australia). Captain Cook sailed and ariived at New Zealand which had already been discovered by Abel Tasman in 1642. He continued sailling west he arrived at south-eastern coast of Australia on April 19, 1770 and became the first Eropean to have found Australia's eastern coastline. On April 23, 1770, Captain Cook made his first direct observation of the people of Australia at Brush Island. Also on April 29, Captain Cook's crew made their first visit on land in the voyage in a place which is now called Kurnell Peninsula.
Captain Cook continued northwards until on June 11, the ship hit a rocky area and was badly damaged. They repaired the ship on a beach in Cooktown for seven weeks then continue their journey again. On August 22, 1770, he arrived at Possession Island where he claimed the entire coastline he had just explored as British territory. They finally arrived at England in July 12, 1771.
First Voyage Continued
David Livingstone was born in Blatntyre, Scotland in March, 19, 1813 . He was the 2 of 7 kids in his family. He later in his youth went to med school. While in med school he learned about how to speak Latin. He left med school entering the church of Scotland learning there about exploration and hoped about being a missionary in China but when the first opium war started he had to be held back from doing it. Being influenced by many explorers and scholars he started focus on South Africa and ventured there.
Captain Cook got promoted into a commander on August 1771. Some people believed that there was a southern continent. So on July 13, 1772, Captain Cook decided to go on another journey with two ships, the Resolution and the Adventure. Captain Cook sails and decides to cross the Antarctic Circle but after the next day they decide to go northeast which they arrived at New Zealand.
HMS The Resolution
Second Voyage Continued
From June to October the two ships explored the southern Pacific, reaching Tahiti on 15 August. He also visited the New Hebrides on July 17, 1774. The ships returned to New Zealand but were separated by a storm on October 22. Then, the ship Adventure decided to go to England and they arrived there on December 22, 1773. The Resolution got to England on July 14, 1774.
Captain James Cook
On February 14, 1779, Captain James Cook went to Hawaii and started a war when his boat got stolen. He got killed when the enemies clubbed him to death. He never completed his third voyage. Most of his crew made it out and went back to England.
Christopher Columbus was born on October 31, 1451, and in Genoa. He was the oldest of five children in his family. His siblings were, three brothers and a sister (Bartholomew Columbus, Bianchinetta Columbus, Giovanni Pellegrino Columbus, Giacomo Columbus). His father, Domenico was a wool weaver and shopkeeper which Christopher helped, but he always wanted to travel. Marco Polo's story also influenced Christopher to go to Asia. He started wailing on the sea at the age of 10. Before he was 20 (1471), he was expert at sailing. His family also moved to Savona at the same year.
Christopher Columbus died on May 20, 1506, in Valladolid. He is remembered as one of the famous European explorer in the whole world.
In 1473, Christopher began working as a business agent for the Centurione, and Spinola families of Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in an armed convoy sent by Genoa to carry a valuable cargo to northern Europe. He stopped in Bristol, England and Galway, Ireland while he was doing the convoy. In 1479, Christopher settled in Lisbon and also found his brother, Bartolomeo. He also got married with Filipa Moniz Perestrelo but his wife died on 1485.
Christopher Columbus asked Ferdinand that he wants ships and supplies so he would be able to find a short way to get to the Indies by ship. He also asked him that could he be the ruler of any land he discovers and the king agreed On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus started a journey with 3 ships (Santa María, Pinta and Niña) leaving Spain. The Santa María was captained by Christopher Columbus, the Pinta was captained by Martín Alonso Pinzón and the Niña by Vicente Yañez Pinzón. The He first sailed to the Canary islands to get more supplies and to repair.
After five weeks, (October 12) Rodrigo de Triana, a sailor aboard the Pinta, first sighted land in the morning. Christopher called the land, San Salvador (The Bahamas). He met First Nations there and wrote about them in his journal and the First Nations called The Bahamas, Guanahani. Christopher explored five islands in The Bahamas before continuing the voyage. He got to Cuba on October 28 and told the Pinzon (captain of Pinta) to go to a search of gold in the island Babeque which the First Nations told him. On the day of Christmas, the ship Santa Maria ran aground and couldn't sail for some days.
On December 6, he continued north and stopped at Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) where he found Pinzon (captain of Pinta). On January 13,1493, Christopher made his last stop which was the Samaná Peninsula in the Dominican Republic. He met people which were called Ciguayos and they were very skilled with the use of arrows. So, Christopher called the land,"The Bay Of Arrows."He kidnapped 10-25 first nations, but only 7-8 of them survived. Christopher headed for Spain, but because of a storm, he got to Portugal, Lisbon on March 4, 1493. he got back to Spain on March 15, 1493.
Pinzon of Pinta
On May 30, 1498, Captain Columbus left Spain with six ships and was sailing to the new world for the third time. As he crossed the Atlantic, Columbus discovered that the angle between North is found by a magnetic compass and North is measured by the position of the pole star when changed with its position. Along the way he decided to explore the Caribbean Islands. He stopped by at a island now called Puerto Rico. He then sailed to the northern tip of South America. He stayed there for a few months until he had poor health so he sailed back to Hispaniola to recover. After he was recovered, some of the Spanish settlers didn't like his rules and that he lied to them about the riches of the New World (North America). He was arrested and was sent to jail. After, the king let him go and allowed him to go voyages but he couldn't governor (rule) the islands he discovers.
On May 11, 1502, Captain Columbus left Cadiz, Spain because he was searching for Strait of Malacca. His brother (Bartholomew) and his 13 year old son (Ferdinand). He stopped at the island Martinique but they had to continue because a hurricane was coming. They finally reached Santo Domingo and stayed at the mouth of Rio Haina. Then he continued South along the coast of Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. They met first nations and traded food and gold. Other storms came and the ships were damaged so they decided to go to Santo Domingo to aid but they only made it to Jamaica. They were stranded there for a year living with first nations surviving. 2 Ships finally arrived at Jamaica and they got to Spain on November 7, 1504.
Livingstone had an Zambezi Expedition to examine the natural resources of southeastern Africa. The expedition lasted from March 1858 until the middle of 1864. He was trying to locate Ruvuma River. Attempts to navigate the Ruvuma River but failed because of the continual fouling of the paddle wheels from the bodies thrown in the river by slave traders, and Livingstone's assistants gradually died or left him.
Christopher Columbus left Spain, Cadiz on September 24, 1493 with 17 ships and 1 700 men. On 3 November, Columbus found a island that he named Dominica and later of that day, he also found Marie-Galante which he named Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura. He explored Guadalupe, Cáceres from November 4-10. He went North and named islands such as Montserrat, Antigua, Saint Croix and more. Christopher also saw the Virgin Islands and named it Islas de Santa Úrsula y las Once Mil Vírgenes. He continued and got to Hispaniola and visited the La Navidad. He continued until he got to Cuba (which he named Juana) on April 30 and explored the southern coast of it. He then got to Jamaica on May 5. He then retraced his route to Hispaniola which he arrived on August 20. On June 11, 1496, he returned back to Spain.
Nile River Expedition
Setting out from the mouth of the Ruvuma river Livingstone's assistants began deserting him. The Comoros Islanders had returned to Zanzibar and told him authorities that Livingstone had died. He reached Lake Malawi on 6 August, by which time most of his supplies, including all his medicines, had been stolen. Livingstone then travelled through swamps in the direction of Lake Tanganyika. With his health declining he sent a message to Zanzibar requesting supplies be sent to Ujiji and he then headed west. Forced by ill health to travel with slave traders he arrived at Lake Mweru on 8 November 1867.
Nile River Expedition Continued
During his expedition Livingstone got very sick but the Arab traders saved him by giving him medicines. In March 1869 Livingstone, suffering from pneumonia, arrived in Ujiji to find his supplies stolen. Coming down with cholera and tropical ulcers on his feet, he was again forced to rely on slave traders to get him as far as Bambara where he was caught by the wet season. With no supplies, Livingstone had to eat his meals in a roped off open enclosure for the entertainment of the locals in return for food.
Nile Expedition Continued
On 15 July 1871, according to Livingstone's original handwritten journals, while he was visiting the town of Nyangwe on the banks of the Lualaba River, he witnessed around 400 Africans being massacred by slavers. The massacre horrified Livingstone, leaving him too shattered to continue his mission to find the source of the Nile. Following the end of the wet season, he travelled 240 miles from Nyangwe and violently ill most of the way. He went back to Ujiji, where he arrived at eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika on 23 October 1871.
John Cabot was a Italian explorer who lived from 1450-1499.Cabot's birthplace is in Italy. He was the first Italian explorer to sail to Canada.he made three voyages across the Atlantic Ocean.
John Cabot's ship, "The Matthew" sailed away from England and ended up in Newfoundland, Canada and then in China. He then was claimed the first European explorer to discover the mainland of North America. He then tried to sail further north, making the first recorded attempt to find the Northwest Passage, only to find ice-crusted waters.
John Cabot left on May with 17 men to come back to Canada to find the Northwest Passage. He tried to find it but he never did. He only saw ice-crusted waters. He finally gave up and went back to England. On the way back to England, he died so he never made it back to England.
Sebastian Cabot was born on 1474 in Italy, Venice. After his father's death (John Cabot), Sebastian decided to go on his own expedition. He only made at least one voyage. He sailed to Canada successfully but then he tried to find the Northwest Passage. He never found it but he later tried to repeat Ferdinand Magellan's voyage around the world.
He was thrown off his boat "the Matthew" by his own crew. The reason why the crew did that was unknown.