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A spatially differentiated analysis of inequality for the UK in the last decade
Transcript of A spatially differentiated analysis of inequality for the UK in the last decade
A Spatially differentiated
analysis of inequality
within the UK over the
last decade. By Simon Rees, James Tidey, Chris Hawes-Gatt and Dongliang Sang Aims of the presentation -To have an understanding of different types of inequality
-To have an understanding of the different measures of inequality.
-To analyse regional differences in inquality (UK)
-Understanding why the differences occur and possible reasons for this.
- Common measures to reduce inequality
Theory and Definitions What is inequality?
- Inequality is the difference within social status, wealth, or opportunities that are available for different groups of people. Different types of inequality within economics:
-Particiption We will focus on three:
Measurements of Inequality:
Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient Another measure of income inquality The Kuznets ratio A useful measure that is also taken into account when considering income inequality is the Kuznets ratio. The ratio is worked out by:
Top 20%/bottom 40% of incomes within the populaton.
This is often used as a measure of inequality between low and high income groups within a country.
Our Case Study: How does this relate to the UK
Regions: Wales, England, Scotland and Northern Ireland Reaons for differences in inequality How can inequality improve? Conclusion Why measure inequality? Higher inequality, Higher poverty? Fairness? Knowing which area to spend government money on? Income Scotland Wales Analysis of Income comparisions
The UK is at a record high for income inequality. This is shown by the Gini coefficient being at 0.4. This is also supported by our Theil Statistic.
Compared to the UK, Wales and Scotland are below the average inequality levels.
England's inequality levels are higher on average, but this is mainly due to the regions of London and the South East.
Wales has the lowest income inequality, followed by Scotland, then by England.
Health Analysis of Health Comparisons
Health comparisons over the UK are generally equal.
Most life expectancies at birth are very similar for all four countries.
Scotland and the north of England have the lowest life expectancies with South East England and London having the highest.
We can conclude that there is not much health inequality in the UK.
Education Men Women Analysis of Education Comparisons
England have the greatest percentage of people with degrees closely followed by Scotland.
These two countries also have the lowest percentage of people with no qualifications.
Northern Ireland has the lowest percentage of degrees attained and the highest numbers of unqualified people. Income:
The labour market.
Supply and demand for jobs.
Gender, race and culture.
Access to education
Standards of schools/education.
Standards of hospitals
Availability of hospitals
Access to private health care
Education of health. -Taxes -In kind transfers and housing subsidies - Welfare and unemployment benefits Improving Income Improving Health - Redistribution of wealth - Achieving full unemployment -Eradicating child poverty Improving Education -Reduce income inequality -Increase investment in education -Inequality should be a key priority for all governments. -We can conclude from our comparisions that regional inequality is occuring within the UK - Although inequality is higher in England than the other UK countries, this is mainly due to certain areas. -We can conclude that income inequality is the largest factor to consider -We believe that inequality will always be an issue and will be hard to eradicate. Theil Index Thanks for listening and any questions? Raw data sourse: National statistics