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4 Agents of Erosion and Deposition: Water, Wind, Gravity, an

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Paige Clement

on 9 February 2016

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Transcript of 4 Agents of Erosion and Deposition: Water, Wind, Gravity, an

4 Agents of Erosion and Deposition: Water, Wind, Gravity, and Glaciers
Water
Streams
Young Streams
steep slopes, fast moving, rapids, waterfalls, creates valleys
Mature Streams
gentler slopes, meanders (bends) are created
Old Streams
flat land, moves slower, meanders grow over time
erosion occurs on outside of bends where water flows faster and picks up sediments, deposition occurs on inside of bend where water moves slower
Coasts
Waves
carry away sediments on shore and they carve out
sea cliffs.
Longshore current = a current that flows parallel to shore
Sea caves
,
sea stacks
, and
sea arches
form when less resistant sediments to erosion remain behind.
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es1606/es1606page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization
Groundwater
Caves
form when
carbon dioxide
mixes with
rainwater
to form a
weak acid
that seeps underground and wears away
limestone
.
When dripping water deposits minerals underground,
stalactites
and
stalagmites
form.
Land Use Practices
People build
retaining walls
perpendicular to the shore to prevent beaches from eroding away.
When people build
dams
, they stop some sediment from reaching shorelines that would replace the sand washed away by waves.
http://ees.as.uky.edu/sites/default/files/elearning/module14swf.swf
Floodplains
have rich soil, but are risky to build on.
People build
levees
to reduce flooding, but they also reduce the nutrients the soil receives from flooding.
Wind
Wind
Wind can erode rock through
abrasion
.
Dunes
are piles of windblown sand.
Dunes
can travel overtime as wind picks up sand and deposits it in another place.
Loesses
are crumbly, thick, windblown deposits of
silt
and
clay
.
When people remove
vegetation
, wind erosion is
more
likely to occur.
Gravity
Mass Wasting
= the downhill movement of a
large mass
of rocks or soil because of the pull of
gravity
.
The amount of
water
in the soil
increases
the likelihood of mass wasting.
Types of Mass Wasting:
Landslide
= rapid downhill movement of soil, rocks, and boulders
rockfall
mudslide
Slump
= material moves slowly
Creep
= materials move too slow to be noticeable
When mass wasting finishes, the material is
deposited
in a more stable location.
Talus
= a pile of angular rocks and sediments from a rockfall
Steep slopes
, less
vegetation
, and
blasts
can increase the likelihood of mass wasting.
Glaciers
Glaciers
Alpine Glaciers
form in mountains and flow downhill
Ice Sheets
cover large areas of land and move outward from central locations
As glaciers move over
land
, they
bulldoze
the material in front of them.
Rock and grit within the ice
creates grooves and scratches on underlying rocks.
They carve out
U-shaped
valleys.
As glaciers melt, they leave behind the
sediments
they pushed forward.
Till
= a mixture of various sizes of sediments they pushed forward.
Moraine=
a mound or ridge of unsorted sediment deposited by a glacier.
Outwash Plain
= layered sediment deposited by streams of water that flow from a melting glacier.

Delta
= large deposit of sediment that forms where a stream enters a large body of water
Waterfalls
Waterfalls form where
soft
rock erodes away below
hard
rock. The hard rock creates an
overhang
above the forming
plunge
pool below. As the pounding water carves away the soft rock below, the overhang will eventually collapse, moving the waterfall further
upstream
.
Sinkholes!
How did this pond get here?
= a large mass of ice that forms on land and moves slowly across the Earth's surface
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