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Transcript of timeline
In 1600, beaver pelt hats became all the rage in Europe.
Also in 1600, Pontgrave and Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit sailed to Tadoussacthe. There they made the first ever settlement in Canada but, because the settlement was not Catholic it was never recognized by the church. So it is the first ever "unofficial" settlement.
In 1605, Champlain created the first permanent settlement in Canada. It was named Port Royal which is now called Annapolis, and is in Nova Scotia.
In 1610, John Guy and 39 other people settled in Cupers Cove. This was the first ever English settlement in Canada. Cupers Cove is now called Cupids Cove and is in Newfoundland.
In 1627, Louis Hébert, the first permanent settler in Canada, died after a slip on ice. Also the Company of New France was given monopoly over all the fur-trade in French Canada. Plus, Champlain was made lieutenant to the Viceroy of Canada and commissioned to create a permanent colony of 4000 people by 1643. All this time hostilities between France and England were growing.
In 1629, a British army under David Kirke captured the settlement of Quebec City, but the French got it back when a peace treaty was signed in 1632.
In the 16th century, the Company of New France still had a monopoly on all the fur trade. But two French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers went to Hudson Bay to find pelts. England gave them all the land they found
and started the Hudson Bay
In the early 17th century, Britain and France had begun a war that would last for years. The war spilled into Canada and was fought between the British and the French. Each side had Indian allies fighting alongside them.
In 1713, the war ended because of the Treaty of Utrecht. The terms were as follow:
1)Britain kept Nova Scotia
2) France kept Acadia.
3) France gave up Rupert's Land, all the land around Hudson Bay found by Pierre and Médard.
4) The French fishermen could still land their catch on Newfoundland's French shore.
Lieutenant Governor Charles decided to force the Acadians to swear an oath of allegiance to England, but most of them refused to do so because they did not want to fight against fellow Frenchmen. So in 1755, he had them driven off the land and sent either to southern states of America, or to England or France . Thousands of people were driven off of their land and some families were split up.
Wolfe had been trying to take Quebec for weeks when his generals suggested that they try a surprise attack. Wolfe agreed and they attacked up the cliffs at night. When the French woke up they got a nasty surprise. Thousands of English were arrayed out before them on the plains of Abraham! The battle lasted only 15 minutes. Both generals died but the English still won, and that was the end of New France.
There was still slavery in 17th century, Upper Canada, but because they did not try to rebel there was not much brutality. The slaves were permitted to learn to read, and write and their marriages were recognized by law. The slave act of 1793 was made by an former slave to stop slavery, and it said that no slaves could be shipped in to Upper Canada, that people who were currently slaves were slaves until death, and that future children of slaves would have to be freed at 25 years old. Slavery was abolished everywhere else in Canada in 1834, along with slavery in the rest of the British Empire.
In 1780, the Quakers began the underground railroad to Canada, and Canada continued to be a safe haven for slaves for some time.
American independence of 13 colonies is recognized in the Treaty of Paris 1783, ending the American civil war. Also, Canada welcomes 50,000 refugees and 5,000 blacks as freemen and as slaves. All the blacks were promised land but most were given poor land, and some were given none at all
Alexander Mackenzie was trying to find route across Canada. He traveled down a river but it led him to the Arctic Ocean so he called it Disappointment River. It was later called the Mackenzie River in his honor. He later made it all the way across the continent by a grease trail, a trail used for transporting pemmican by the First Nations.
David Thompson was the first European to travel from one end of the Colombia river to the other. He accomplished this in 1811.
In 1812, the Americans declared war on Britain, and that meant war on Canada as well. But the war did not go very well for the Americans, they lost 2,200 soldiers in action, but the Canadains lost 1,600 soldiers. A lot of fighting was done by Indians most of whom were the allies of the British since the British secretly supported their raids on the Americans
who were taking over Indian land.
In 1813, Laura Secord made a 27 mile walk through heavy woods to warn James FitzGibbon that the American forces were going to try capture him, and that they were coming with 600 men and 6 canons. The report was later confirmed by Indian scouts.
The British ,although greatly out numbered, defeated the American detachment. In 1818 FitzGibbon later said in a report that...
"With respect to the affair with Captain (sic) Boerstler, not a shot was fired on our side by any but the Indians. They beat the American detachment into a state of terror, and the only share I claim is taking advantage of a favorable moment to offer them protection from the tomahawk and scalping knife. The Indian Department did the rest."
After that loss, the Americans were even more terrified of the Indians, and never traveled much more than 1 mile away from their fort in Queenston.
Timeline of the History of Canada 1600-1815