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Transcript of Echolocation
What animals can teach us.... Animals Bats Whales Dolphins * Uses echolocation
* Produces the sound in the nasal system
* Whistle signals and brief broadband echolocation clicks *Why?
- Poor eyesight; innate hearing
-Communication between other dolphins
- Avoiding obstacles Because blind animals successfully use echolocation,
why can't humans? Humans Ben Underwood Daniel Kish James Holman Researchers "the blind traveler"
Traveled the world
one of first known blind man to use echolocation
(1786–1857) * More than 700 species use
*Covers frequencies from 10 kHz to 150 kHz
* Produces sound in larynx
* Projects the sound through vocal tract and then comes out through mouth
*Similar to other land mammals
*Echolocation soundwave: wideband, FM sounds
- one + downward-sweeping harmonics
*Uses: hunting in the dark, navagating; eyesight is relatively poor for insect-eating bats * Toothed Whales
*Over 65 species
* 1.5 km/sec
(0.9 mi/sec) - sound travelling through water
* Why do these animals make noise?
* Nasal sacs near the blowhole region
* Bioacoustic studies reveal a lot * Had to remove eyes (3) because of cancer
* Discovered echolocation at 5
- could skate, walk without a cane, play videogames, run, etc.
* Daniel Kish helps Ben to blend the walking can with echolocation World Access for The Blind "Perceptual Mobility" * Helps blind people "see"
* Further developed echolocation
* Taught himself
* Researcher? Teacher? Inventor? History * 1773 - Lazzaro Spallanzani
** discovered bats could maneuver easily in the dark
*1938 - Robert Galambos and Donald Griffin
** proved that bats echolocate through ultrasound
William Pierce - developed ultrasonic detector * Thousands
* Few examples: Scripps Whale Acoustic Lab under Professor John Hildebrand (dolphins)
* James A. Simmons
- pioneer in biosonar
- From late 1960s to present day: forefront in bat echolocation
- ASA's second Silver Medal in Animal Bioacoustics in 2005
* Juan Antonio Martinez
-researcher at Superior Polytechnic School of UAH
- first of its kind to research echolocation on humans
-inspired by Daniel Kish and Ben Underwood