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Singapore's Pro Natal Policy
Transcript of Singapore's Pro Natal Policy
Advantages / Disadvantages
(By Da Hyun)
Effects & Results
•Penalties were given in schools for families with 2+ children, however this was abolished after the Pro-natal policy was introduced
•During competition and school events, families with 2+ children would have priority
•Donations were given to each child in a government-run / government-approved child care centre
•“Abortions of convenience” were discouraged and women would be given compulsory Abortion Counselling
•Also women with less than 3 children who want to be sterilised would receive compulsory counselling
•A tax rebate (of 20000 SGD) began in 1990 for women who were having their second child before 28.
•Families with more than two children with a HDB flat of three rooms or higher would receive priority if they desired to upgrade to a larger flat
BBC News. BBC. Web. 22 Oct. 2015.
Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 22 Oct. 2015.
Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
"Comparison between China's Anti Natal Policy and Singapore's Pro Natal Policy?" Prezi.com. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
"Geography Topic 1 Case Study: Singapore (Pro Natalist Policy) Flashcards | Easy Notecards." Geography Topic 1 Case Study: Singapore (Pro Natalist Policy) Flashcards | Easy Notecards. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
"Singapore." Singapore. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
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Why was it Implemented?
Singapore's Pro Natal Policy
•Singapore fertility rate was 1.1 (2.1 is the replacement rate)
•Too many foreigners needed
•Needed to increase fertility rate
•Main Points of the Pro-Natal Policy:
•Maternity leave increased to 12 weeks for first 4 babies
•Increased child benefits
•Pay $1000 for six years into a savings account
•Aimed at encouraging educated women (graduates)
•“Have 3 or more (if you can afford it)”
Population doubled 1947-1970
Anti- natal policies: 1966-1982
To solve demographic problems such as overpopulation, depletion of energy resources and to sustain the country, Singapore’s government introduced the anti-natal policy. This policy had showed significant effects on decrease in population by publicizing advantages of smaller families. The fertility rates dropped from 6 to 1.2 by 2011.
-This decrease in population allowed the government to speed up economic activity, by using its resources for investments and etc.
- Prevented over-crowding
- Publicized and effortlessly resulted higher quality of life
- Woman empowerment encouraged reducing birth rate
- Life expectancy
-Increased immigrants due to insufficient workers to fill vacancies.
- Increased dependents
Anti - Natal
Due to Singapore’s too successful anti-natal policy, the country’s future was at stake, Singapore was one of the first countries to reach stage 5 of the demographic transition model -very low birthrate and death rate that population was in decline. Therefore in 1987, pro-natal policy was introduced. Target was to increase population by 40% in 40 years.
•Citizens were offered/ rewarded with various services such as the maternal leave up to12 weeks, carer’s leave for fathers and cash incentives.
•Was not forced upon citizen but was merely encouraged to ‘have 3 or more if you can afford it’
•Aimed towards female graduates – regarded education with importance, and also influenced the more educated to have children as they are more likely to have higher paying jobs and also uni graduates are at most admired marrying age.
•Shorter working hours – so singles can date and marry
Increased services (eg. Healthcare, leisure activities)
•High cost of living
•Increased divorce rates
•6% of couple is childless and rising
•Limitation of resources
•More deforestation and pollution (caused by demand for settlement area and increased use of cars, etc.)
-Singapore's pro natal policy increased the population by 2,340,000 from 1986-2010
-The population is now over 5,400,000
•Post-World War II baby boom in 1947-1957.
Birth rate rose and death rate fell.
Average annual growth rate was 4.4% of which 1% was due to immigration.
Singapore experienced its highest birth rate in 1957 at 42.7 per thousand individuals.
•Family planning was introduced in 1949 by a group of volunteers.
Family Planning Association of Singapore
Established numerous sexual health clinics
Offered contraception, treatment for minor gynaecological ailments, and marital advice.
Government introduced a massive family planning scheme in the late 1960s.
Objectives were to;
Establish family planning clinics and to provide contraceptives at minimal charge
To advertise through the media the need and advantages of smaller families
To legislate so that under circumstances both abortions and sterilization could be allowed
To introduce social and economic incentives such as paid maternity leave, income tax relief, housing priority, and cheaper health treatment.
Early 1990s, the policy had been so successful that the country had insufficient supply of labour.
Singapore now starts to implement pro-natalist policies.
Government was worried that middle class elite were having the fewest children.
Social development unit was set up to encourage graduates to meet on blind dates hoping that the result would be marriage.
Female graduates are encouraged to have three or more children.