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Fashion Fundamentals Presentation
Transcript of Fashion Fundamentals Presentation
In the early 1930's Jean Harlow was famed for her platinum blonde hair, which was a very light, almost white blonde color. When she ascended to stardom, women began coloring their hair in order to achieve her look
Veronica Lake, a rising star, launched a trend by wearing her hair in pee-a-boo bands with her long blonde locks falling over one eye
During the 1930’s, child star Shirley Temple was the movie industry's number one box office star. Mothers dressed their daughters like her and styled their hair to copy her trademark ringlet curls.
Stars like Katharine Hepburn and Greta Garbo were strong-willed personalities both on and off the screen. They both preferred wearing trousers at a time when females were expected to convey their womanliness by wearing skirts and dresses. They sent women the message that wearing pants wouldn't take away from their femininity or make them any less appealing to men. Icons and Celebrities Between 1928-1941 Gilbert Adrian headed the costume department at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, what was then the most prestigious Hollywood movie studio
Not only did he create the signature styles of the studio’s top actresses, but he launched various fashion crazes
One was the popularity of the Gingham dress, a cotton fabric dress featuring a checked or striped pattern, which he designed for Judy Garland in the Wizard of Oz in 1939
Adrian's puff-sleeved gown for Joan Crawford’s character in the 1932 film Letty Lynton was copied by Macy's in 1932 and sold over 500,000 copies nationwide
Another trend attributed to Adrian was the "Empress Eugenie hat ... Universally copied in a wide price range, it influenced how women wore their hats for the rest of the decade." This was from his little velvet hat that he instructured to be worn tipped over one eye by Greta Garbo in Romance (1930).
He designed for over 100 movies and is literally a costume legend Gilbert Adrian Iconic films from the 1930’s had a direct influence on the trends
The era's most favored pattern was a dress worn by Vivien Leigh in a picnic scene in Gone with the Wind (1939), one of the era's most popular and publicized movies
The Scarlett O’Hara look is one reference that exists even today
Another was the sex-bomb appeal of the curve-hugging sweater Lara Turner wore in the 1937 film They Won’t Forget
Another is Clark Gable’s appearance in the film, It Happened One Night. At one point in the movie he removes his shirt revealing his bare chest without an undershirt. After the release of the movie, undershirt sales across the United States plummeted a reported 75% Film Influence Hollywood influence began during the silent film era, and continued until war-time restrictions on fabric stopped the lavish costumes in the 1940s.
Hollywood costume designers played a very large and crucial role in dictating fashion trends.
Movie costumes were covered not only in film fan magazines, but in influential fashion magazines such as Women's Wear Daily, Harper's Bazaar, and Vogue. Outfits worn in movies were quickly copied by retailers.
A woman who found a dress or gown worn in a movie appealing could purchase a low-priced copy in a department store or from a Sears catalog.
Magazines published clothing patterns based on film costumes, allowing women to sew their own Hollywood-style frocks.
Even top designers of the time such as Elsa Schiaparelli and Lucien Lelong acknowledged the impact of film costumes in their works.
Lelong is quoted to have said, “"We, the couturiers, can no longer live without the cinema any more than the cinema can live without us. We corroborate each others' instinct”
Movie star endorsements of styles and accessories was a common practice, especially with evening wear Hollywood Menswear had a much more casual feel in the 1930s
Due to the financial constraints of the era, many men opted to own several more versatile suits in an array of darker colors – this was a huge contrast to the trendy bright colors of the earlier decade
The men’s fashion world was absolutely taken by storm by a new cut of suit called the “drape cut,” or the London Drape
This suit was credited to the tailor of the Prince of Wales, Frederick Scholte (and was adopted by other major celebrities after the Prince’s exile such as Cary Grant and Fred Astaire)
These were suits with rounded and draped lapels and were broader at the shoulders making them softer and more flexible in construction than anything in style earlier
The extra fabric in the shoulders, slightly nipped waist and fuller sleeves resulted in figure-enhancing drapes and folds that gave the suit style its name
Pants became more tapered at the ankle (as opposed to the straight-leg and wider style of trousers in the 1920s)
Later in the decade, those who could afford to own several suits opted for the trendy “gangster style,” aka the pinstripe suit made famous by Mafia member Al Capone
Houndstooth jackets and plaid patterns were in as well
Later in the decade, full suits with wide stripes became fashionable
Summer suits were made of cotton in light colors such as blue and white stripes, while winter suits were made of wool. Silk suits were year-round Menswear – Suits Parisian courtiers were credited first as the direct influences on women’s fashion (seconded by those of the film industry)
Several prominent designers existed at the time
Madeline Vionnet's bias cut made her an innovative designer of the time and her draping was ubiquitous to the era
Elsa Schiaparelli showed her first collection in 1929 and was an instant hit, shattering the foundations of fashion
She is credited with the trend for "shocking pink" and for "changing the outline of fashion from soft to hard, from vague to definite."
She introduced the zipper, synthetic fabrics, simple suits with bold color accents, tailored evening gowns with matching jackets and wide shoulders
Other designers such as Lelong, the fashion label Mainbocher Couture and Jean Patou were essential to the 1930s Designers of the Time The ubiquitous cloche hat of the 1920s was replaced by a beret worn at a jaunty angle
Pill boxes became popular along with brimmed hats
Gloves were considered a crucial part of this time
There were a variety of shoe styles in this era
Rounded toes were paired with wide thick heels (another example that we see coming back in this past Fashion weeks shows)
Pumps, flat shoes, and ankle-strap styles appeared as well
Slip-on styles, lace-up shoes and buckle shoes were all worn and so were two-tone shoes
Bags stayed similar to those of the 1920s
Beaded bags and enameled mesh bags were commonly seen
Leather became popular later in the decade in bags as well Accessories and Shoes Matching ensembles were of fashion at the time
Coco Chanel introduced the jersey knit two-piece suit as an option for daywear women’s fashion which was a huge hit (this was a reflection of the changing lifestyles of even the high society. It was sportier, easier to move around in, and better for the financial constrains of the time!)
Well-tailored suits were a must.
Women's suits were designed with tightly fitted coats, emphasizing a thin waist line, but leaning towards a more masculine look
Handkerchief skirts were another trend of the time
A common use of zippers was in and so was a shocking pink color introduced by designer Eliza Schiaparelli
Women’s sportswear pushed to a more masculine style
Sport suits, leather jackets and middy slacks all became popular Further Trends An empire-waisted gown with ties on the back was a popular formal look
Butterfly or large, puffy sleeves appeared on dresses
Hemlines fell at the ankle with trains adding a dramatic touch
Fabric flowers appeared at various places on necklines or on one shoulder, or even at the center waist
The peplum made its debut in late evening-wear as well (and here it is back again – look at this perfect example of how fashion is evolutionary not revolutionary)
Fur was also worn extensively in this wear, both for day and nightwear
Short jackets (such as boleros and capelets), and dresses cut with fitted midriffs or seams right below the bust were common
By the later half of the decade, emphasis moved to the back of gowns with halter necks and backless gowns that were high-necked in front Evening Wear Trends Hemlines dropped dramatically to the ankle
However, necklines were lowered
They also became much more dramatic – examples being wide scallop-edged and ruffled collars
Darts were replaced by soft gatherings
Dress waists returned to a natural waistline
Moderately full skirts accentuated a small waist and minimized the hips
Dress bodices were designed with inset pieces and yokes
Sleeveless blouses or very short sleeves became popular for casual looks.
Skirts were designed with much greater detail
Layers and ruffles began appearing on skirts, often with tiers
Often skirt bottoms were full with pleats and/or gatherings
Paris designers introduced fuller skirts that were to-the-knee (as opposed to the mid-calf length) in the later 1930s, a style that would remain in day dresses for the wartime years to come.
Shoulders also become slightly padded, ushering the looks of the 1940s. Trends Continued There was a return to a more ladylike appearance
Softer and more feminine styles replaced the boyish flapper look of the 1920s
Parisian designer Madame Vionnet developed the bias cut method in 1922, and it was in the ’30s that her technique caught on and was used by other designers to create dresses that embraced the female form while celebrating fluidity and movement
This was the way the 1920s women drew attention to her body – as opposed to the revealing styles in the ‘20s, these dresses were covering, but clung to every part of the women’s body
Separate undergarments began to become popular as the individual bra became better designed and more acceptable.
This was the decade that introduced bra cup sizing Silhouette / Trends Washable and easy-care fabrics were introduced during this decade (a logical move when viewed through the historical lens)
Prior to this, manufactured fibers were designed to emulate natural fibers. This decade was the first time openly synthetic fibers were introduced
Nylon was successfully synthesized by the DuPont de Nemours Company in 1935
Hosiery officially made the switch to nylon in 1939 at the close of the decade
The widespread use of this fiber was not in wide-spread use until World War II era, but its emergence was still an important part of the 1930s world of fashion Fabrics The shift in the economic state made reckless spending a thing of the past
The Autumn, 1930 Sears Catalogue admonished, “Thrift is the spirit of the day. Reckless spending is a thing of the past.”
The beginning of the decade saw women sewing more.
The custom prior to this time was to change outfits multiple times a day, but this was quickly abandoned with the Depression’s hold
The extravagant men’s and women’s styles of the 1920s were now replaced by a strong affinity towards practical styles
Things that would originally have been replaced began to be mended and patched
Less ready-to-wear garments were purchased
The earlier concept that started in the late 1920s of selling models to retailers in the the USA for duplication – who in turn would license patterns to fashion magazines for publication in ” the style of”. (Meaning essentially that imitations of Parisian fashions were common).
Meanwhile styles were drastically changing and a huge shift emerged with the transition from twenties to thirties General Information The Great Depression was the obvious and most significant event when discussing 1930s fashion.
It was a worldwide economic crisis and depression that preceded World War Two
The depression originated in the U.S., after the fall in stock prices that began around September 1929, and became worldwide news with Black Tuesday, or the great stock market crash of October 29, 1929
The United States did not leave its economic crisis until 1941 with the beginning of World War Two
Over time the market became increasingly unstable and when it crashed, became the largest financial crisis of the twentieth century
Literally the economy of the entire world was hit by this
It also brought the twenties to a “roaring halt” The Great Depression War and other major disasters always speed up change dramatically and create acceptance of cultural changes that before had been unthinkable
During 1914-1918 fashion came to somewhat of a standstill. This was an obvious result of World War One - it was a time of uniforms and drab functional clothes
By the 1920s many young people had been made old by the horrors of war. Young men of 18 had seen the reality of combat and women who had acted as nurses had seen horrific injuries and mental suffering that shocked. It made for a general feeling that life was short and should be enjoyed. Pre-1930s History All in all, the 1930s was a powerful time for fashion
Invention of the bias cut, nylon and a more feminine silhouette stand out as crucial elements of the era
It’s return to a more feminine-like shape in contrast to its preceding Roaring Twenties matches almost exactly with the recent fashion shows
Trends right now such as peplum, full skirts, and two-tone brouges clearly originate here in the 1930s, while other classics such as leather and the fedora hat do as well Conclusion Trendy sports-clothes such as knickerbockers and plus-fours were out by 1933, losing out to casual trousers among the fashionable
Casual styles transcended from the 1920s into the 1930s as well
Wingtip shoes were in as were brouges, especially two-toned
Men wore shoes of black, brown and tan leather
The loafer trend began in this decade
Suspenders were worn both with suits and casual wear
Hats were an essential part of daily-wear
Those in fashion included hats in the Hamburg style, bowler style, and fedoras
The most common hat of the decade was the fedora hat, often worn over one eye and at a “rakish angle” Menswear Continued "The '20s flapper styles had seen a trend toward shapeless dresses with low, dropped waists around the hips. Skinny, boyish figures that were all the rage in the 1920s gave over to a sexy, curvy look that was ushered in with the '30 and a much more feminine look." The Styles Examples of the Drape Style Men's Fashion "Hats were an essential item. Norms in the 1930s required that both men and women wear hats." Scarlett O'Hara in Gone With the Wind Visual Aid Knit Jersey Suit From 1930s Swimsuits Women's swimsuits in the 1930s were made of latex, cotton or wool. In 1925, Gilbert Adrian designed for his second movie, The Eagle. He was already employing design tactics for which he would become famous, such as the use of asymmetrical appliques (1). Another costume for the movie shows an even heavier 1920's influence (2); Some of Adrian's best work was done for Joan Crawford's films; his most famous dress for her was for 1932's Letty Lynton. (3). As the 1930's continued, Adrian continued to make use of high-contrast black and white (4). Star Norma Shearer wears Adrian's magnificent wardrobe for 1938's Marie Antoinette - it has the designer's trademark detailing at her bustline, and his asymmetrical draping on her skirts (5). By the later 1930's, improvements in film technology made it possible for Adrian to use subtler effects, such as crystal-beaded fringe (6). The detail would been hard to photograph ten years previously. Images of Adrian and his work Jean Harlow Veronica Lake Shirley Temple Katherine Hepburn 1930-era Icons A Bias-Cut Dress 1930s Evening Wear Images Note the pleated and gatherings in every gown, as well as the intense backs,
dramatic necklines, tight clingy skirts, and under-the-bust seams A Presentation by Abigail Bachrach, Makena Owens, and Stacy Tohar
The Roaring Twenties was a term used to refer to the 1920s
It characterized the decade's distinctive cultural edge in New York City, Paris, and many other major cities during a period of economic prosperity.
An evolving modernity emerged with the proliferation of technology
People rejected the stiffer Victorian era and wanted to be freer
Fashion entered a modern era at this time, with an increased acceptance of sports and casual-wear throughout the decade
This was the time of the 'flapper,' when young women rejected their corsets and donned slinky, skin-baring gowns with chin-length hair that became a classic look we still immortalize The Roaring Twenties Bibliography 1.http://www.ehow.com/list_7442081_women_s-clothes-1930s.html
9. Brockman, H. (1965). The Theory of Fashion Design. New York: Wiley Makeup in the early thirties called for a complexion like "Gardenia" (white and waxen) or "Tea rose" (ivory with a touch of pink)
Eyebrows were plucked extremely thin or shaved off and redrawn with pencil (and then dressed with petroleum jelly to add shine)
A full lip was the style at the time, with the most popular lipstick colors in the earlier years, being light rose, raspberry tones, chinese red and orange tones. In the later 30s primarily bright red tones were in
Hairstyles became increasingly feminine to match the clothes
Soft face-framing waves were in and hair parted to the side
Platinum blonde (a la Jean Harlow) was in as well Makeup and Hair Introduction The 1930s was a time of financial constraint for the entire world, especially the United States. The Great Depression took over the entire decade, making the world of wealth and excess from before obsolete. The fashion of the time was directly influenced by the social and economic crises happening across the globe. Trends of the 1920s gave way to a easier, more practical and feminine silhouette. Cultural influences such as movies and celebrity icons helped shape an era of fashion like no other before.