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Social Change in 20th Century Ireland

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Danny Moran

on 23 January 2017

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Transcript of Social Change in 20th Century Ireland

Key Words -
Rural Ireland
What we need to know
Changes
This chapter will focus on the changes that took place in Ireland over the last 100 years
You will need to pay particular attention to the following:
the role of women
work and leisure
urban and rural life
transport and communications
Ireland in 1900's
1900's -
Most people living in countryside
The main occupation was farming
Many small farmers lived in cramped one/two room cottages
No electricity
Thatched roofs

Tenement houses
No electricity
No running water
Role of women
TB
Child Mortality
Urban Ireland
Social Change in 20th Century Ireland
First of all...
How do you think work has changed in the last 100 years?
Give two examples of transport in the 1950's and two today
How did people keep in touch 60-70 years ago? How do you keep in touch today?
Describe how your house is different from that of your grandparents when they were your age
Small, thatched cottages
Difficult, labour intensive work
Large families
Changes
Tenement Houses were demolished and replaced with better quality houses
Small rural villages outside the city became large population centres, meaning the city centre became more industry-orientated
Shopping centres became more widespread
Domestic appliances like washing machines changed the
role of women
in the home
Transport
M1 motorway linking Dublin and Belfast
The M50 routes around Dublin city
The Jack Lynch tunnel in Cork
Dublin's port tunnel
Key Dates
May 1999 - Jack Lynch tunnel
December 2006 - Port Tunnel
1944 - CIÉ established
1940's-50's - steam trains replaced by diesel engines
2000's - Luas
1936 - Aer Lingus established
1990's - Ryanair - affordable air travel
2010 - Dublin airport's terminal 2 opened
The Role of Women
In the first half of the 20th century the role of Irish women was very much as homemakers. They were relied upon to raise their children, keep the house and prepare meals while their husband's worked. Very few women received an education beyond primary school, and fewer had any meaningful influence in society or highly respected professions

The roles of a small number of women however, began to change public perception of how they could influence society in Ireland
Key personalities
Countess Markievicz
Kathleen Clarke
Mary Robinson
Key changes
1927 - women forbidden to sit on a jury
1935 - Use of contraceptives made illegal
Marriage bar prohibited women being a civil servant once they married (this was repealed in 1972
1974 - Women had to be paid the same as men for the same work
1977 - Employment Equality Act: this made women equally valuable members of the workforce
Entertainment - main changes
The main forms of entertainment in Ireland up to the 1940's were: Cinema, theatre, fair days and Irish traditional music and dances. Cinemas became more widespread during the 1940's, with most small towns having one, unlike today

From the 1940's onwards, radio began to permeate Irish society, as households began tuning in to music and news broadcasts
The late 1950's saw television make its way into our homes. RTE was set up in 1961. The result of this was a quicker broadcasting of major sporting and world events, with 24 hour news updating people constantly. It also saw huge money invested in advertising, encouraging people to spend money
Education
Free education
was introduced in
1967
. This was aimed at making it easier for those from poorer backgrounds to gain an education beyond primary school.
Corporal punishment
was commonplace in Ireland up until the 1980's, when it was forbidden
Transition Year
was introduced as a pilot project in September 1974 as a means of bridging the gap between junior and senior cycle. It was applied to main stream schools from 1994, with the majority of schools opting for it
Exam Question 2014 Paper
(i) State how each of three of the following sources might be useful to a historian researching social change:
Interviews with elderly people; Census returns; Personal diaries; Old maps

(ii) Identify three major changes in communications since 1960. (2 x 3)

(iii) Give three major changes in education since 1960. (2 x 3)

(iv) What have been the main changes in the role of women since 1945?
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