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Improving Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Efficiency with TiO2 Nanotubes

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Cady Lytle

on 26 July 2013

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Transcript of Improving Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Efficiency with TiO2 Nanotubes

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
(DSSC)
2. Titanium Dioxide carries the electrons to the anode
3. Electrons flow from the anode to the load and then to the cathode
4. A layer of graphite or another catalyst catalyzes the reaction in the electrolyte (often iodine).
5. The electrolyte returns the electron to the anthocyanin ion, restoring it.
1. Photons from sunlight energize the anthocyanin (red) which give off electrons and become a positive anthocyanin ion
Photovoltaic Effect
First practical solar cell built in 1954
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) are cheap and flexible

Background
Problems
Electrons "get lost" traveling through the Titanium Dioxide
Limited surface area for dye absorption
TiO2 Nanotubes
TiO2 nanotubes act as a "highway" for electrons
Increased surface area within nanotubes allows for greater dye absorption
Applications
Improve other DSSCs
Windows
Solar powered bags
Hybrid Li batteries
Take the place of PV cells for electricity production
Two-Step Anodic Oxidation
Process
TiO2 nanotubes grown
Filled with TiO2 nanocrystals
Scanning Electron Microscope imges of TiO2 nanotubes
Nanocrystals
Coated in PEG
Applied in aqueous PVP solution
Mesoporous double layer of crystals
Annealing leaves only nanocrystals behind
Scanning Electron Microscope images of Nanocrystals in Nanotubes
Data
5.21% Power Conversion Efficiency
NC-NTA-2 absorb twice as much dye
NC-NTA-2 absorb twice as much sunlight
NC-NTA-2 has less internal reflectance
Testing
Compared unfilled-NTA based solar cells to NC-NTA based solar cells
Measured light absorbency under simulated sunlight
Measured internal light reflectance
Measured dye absorbency
Light Absorbance
Internal Reflectance
Dye Absorbance
Roshan Giyanani, Cady Lytle, Wyatt Mufson
Works Cited
Primary Article:
[1] Yang, Z., Pan, D., Xi, C., Li, J., Shi, J., Xu, F., & Ma, Z. (2013). Surfactant-assisted nanocrystal filling of TiO2 nanotube arrays for dye-sensitized solar cells with improved performance. Journal of Power Sources, 236, 10-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.02.037
Secondary Articles:
[2] How A Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Works [Powerpoint slides]. (n.d.). Retrieved July 18, 2013, from Nanotechnology Center for Learning and Teaching website: http://community.nsee.us/concepts_apps/dssc/DSSC.html
[3] Zukalova, M., Zukal, A., Kavan, L., Nazeeruddin, M. K., Liska, P., & Grätzel, M. (2005). Organized mesoporous TiO2 films exhibiting greatly enhanced performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano Letters, 5(9), 1789-1792.
[4] Xu, H., Tao, X., Wang, D. T., Zheng, Y. Z., & Chen, J. F. (2010). Enhanced efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO< sub> 2</sub> nanocrystal/nanotube double-layered films. Electrochimica Acta, 55(7), 2280-2285.
[5] Guo, W., Xue, X., Wang, S., Lin, C., & Wang, Z. L. (2012). An integrated power pack of dye-sensitized solar cell and Li battery based on double-sided TiO2 nanotube arrays. Nano letters, 12(5), 2520-2523.
[6] Nathan. (2013, July 15). Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieve Record Efficiency Of 15% #JJBvJXOlkKgPu9xJ.99. Retrieved July 21, 2013, from Clean Technica website:
http://cleantechnica.com/2013/07/15/dye-sensitized-solar-cells-achieve-record-efficiency-of-15/
[7] Sharp Develops Concentrator Solar Cell with World's Highest Conversion Efficiency of 44.4%. (2013, June 14). Retrieved July 21, 2013, from Sharp website: http://sharp-world.com/corporate/news/130614.html
[8] Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Turning Windows into Power Sources. (n.d.). Retrieved July 21, 2013, from Sony Global website: http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/csr/SonyEnvironment/technology/ solar_cells.html
[9] lowychang (Ed.). (2012, February 3). Jintex Corporation: Dye Sensitized Solar Cells on the Verge of Booming Growth. Retrieved July 21, 2013, from EnergyTrend website: http://pv.energytrend.com/interview/interviews_solar_20120203.html
[10] Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell [Image]. (2012, January 6). Retrieved from http://www.printedelectronicsworld.com/images/v5/articles/820x615/main4062.jpg
[11]G2G24i Ships World’s First Commercial Application of DSSC. (2009, October 12). Retrieved July 21, 2013, from G24i website:
http://www.g24i.com/press,g24i-ships-worlds-first-commercial-application-of-dssc,172.html
[12] Cherepy, N. J., Smestad, G. P., Gratzel, M., & Zhang, J. Z. (1997). Ultrafast Electron Injection: Implications for a Photoelectrochemical Cell Utilizing an Anthocyanin Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Nanocrystalline Electrode. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 9342-9351.
[13] Zervos, H. (2013, May 16). DSSCs: Slow growth forecasted for 3rd generation solar technology. Retrieved July 21, 2013, from Printed Electronics World website: http://www.printedelectronicsworld.com/articles/dsscs-slow-growth-forecasted-for-3rd-generation-solar-technology-00005438.asp?sessionid=1
[14] Gambino, M. The Future of Energy: Document Deep Dive: The Patent for the First Practical Solar Cell. Retrieved July 21, 2013, from Smithsonian.com website:
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/ideas-innovations/Document_Deep_Dive_The_Patent_for_the_First_Practical_Solar_Cell.html
[15] Mcquade, C. (Presenter). (2013, July 9). Dye Sensitized Solar Cells. Lecture presented at SAAST Nanotechnology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
Improving Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Efficiency with TiO2 Nanotubes
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