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Making a Basic Map

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Kimberly Holmes

on 12 June 2013

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Transcript of Making a Basic Map

GIS Basics for Conservation
How to Make a Map Using ArcMap 10.1
What is GIS?
GIS stands for Geographic Information System
A GIS facilitates the analysis and manipulation of geographically referenced data.
It's more than just making maps! Maps are just one way to visualize the data that you work with
GIS gives us a platform to view our data and see how it relates to other data. Other outputs of a GIS include charts, graphs and reports to name a few.
How can I benefit from using GIS?
Utilizing the capabilities of GIS will give you the power to analyze the properties that you work on. This will give you a better understanding of the conservation values, features, topography and relationship of these properties to their surrounding environments.
The data that you work can either be imported from another source or created yourself using the editor in GIS. This data will be presented as layers on a basemap. These layers can be toggled on and off, organized by drawing order and manipulated to change the transparency levels to facilitate analysis.
What will this class teach me?
Although we can't teach you how to "do" GIS in one day, we can teach you how to make a basic map using the boundary shapefiles for the conservation easement properties that you are working on.
What is a shapefile?
A shapefile is the output file that is used by ESRI to display points, lines and polygons. It has an extension of .shp and is accompanied by other extensions that hold its display information. It is mandatory that the .shp file is accompanied by a .shx (shape index format) and .dbf (database format) files. The .shx holds the position and the .dbf holds the attribute data.
What other extensions can be found as part of a shapefile?
A shapefile may also contain a multitude of other extensions that hold different pieces of information. One of the most important that you should recognize is the .prj extension. This extension holds the projection information for the shapefile. If you ever have a shapefile and need to know if it is projected, see if the file contains a .prj. If it does, you can open the .prj with Notepad to see its coordinate system and projection information.
When sharing the shapefile, be sure all extensions are packaged with the .shp, it is easiest to zip them all into one folder.
Shapefiles and their extensions can be viewed in MyComputer
shapefile
prj file
All of the extensions associated with the file should be packaged with the file in order for it to work properly!!!
Last note about GIS data basics:
There are 2 types of data that you will encounter when working with GIS. Vector and Raster Based Data. Shapefiles are vector data, and are comprised of points and lines which store geometric and mathematical data such as x,y data in order to display. Examples of vector data are points, lines and polygons, where points may represent houses, lines may represent roads or streams, and polygons may represent lakes or property boundaries.
Where:
Points are used to show location

Lines are used to show and analyze length.

Polygons are used to show and analyze area.
Raster data are made up of pixels, where the spatial location or resolution of the data are associated with these pixel values, and holds the attribute information such as elevation. Examples of these are Digital Orthophotos from aerial photography, satellite imagery or scanned maps, such as USGS topographic maps or digital elevation models. You might get this data from various sources to use as a basemap for your map.
Common rasters include .jpeg, .tiff, .gif, .drg, .dem - However, dem's (digital elevation model) can also be vector based when they are tin-dem's or (triangular irregular network digital elevation models)
Other common vector based files you may encounter include CAD files with an extension of .dwg, Google Earth files have an extension of .kml (.kmz when zipped) and GPS output files, an extension of .gpx
To Save the Headache of Knowing all of these extensions and how to use them, ArcMap has a feature that will enable you to stream basemaps directly to your Map Layout!
Let's Get Started by Opening ArcMap!
Opening ArcMap may sound simple enough, but for someone new to the program, it can be confusing.
Step 1: You can access ArcMap by either double-clicking the icon on your desktop, or right clicking to open the context menu, and selecting Open.
Lesson 1: GIS Basics
Lesson 2: Opening ArcMap
Step 2: Once ArcMap loads you will see the Getting Started window. Here you can choose an existing map that you have worked on in the past, or choose to open a New Map Document.
Step 3: To Open a New Map Document, select new maps from the catalog tree, then select Blank Map from My Templates
Opening ArcMap
Starting a Blank Map Document
Select New Map
Select
Blank
Map
New Map Document
Map Title
File menu
Table of Contents (where you add your shapeiles and other layers.
Data Frame (Where your map will display)
Tool bars
Give your New Map a Title
We will call this new map "Dixie Creek Timber, LLC"
Parent Folders
Where you save your CE map projects
Subfolder for GIS Data
Create a Workspace
In My Computer
1) Minimize ArcMap by clicking the minimize tab in the upper right hand corner. Open My Computer and navigate to the area where you want to save your Land Trust Mapping documents and files.
2) Create a parent folder for CE Map Projects. Inside this folder, create a sub folder for the project you are working on. For training, we will call it "Dixie Creek Timber, LLC". Open "Dixie Creek Timber, LLC" and create a sub folder called "GIS Data"
1) Click on the File Menu in the upper left hand corner of the Map Document
2) Select "Save As" and the "Save As" window will open. Choose where to save your map. This is important because you will want to save your map document and all the GIS files that you make for that property in the same location. File Organization is important for locating data, and sharing data. Saving the map document when you start will make it easier to save your progress as you work, which you will want to do frequently.
3) Navigate to the folder you created for CE Map Projects by using the drop down menu beside "Save In". Navigate to the "Dixie Creek Timber, LLC" folder that you created, and type the file name for the Map Document in the "File Name" box at the bottom - Dixie Creek Timber, LLC.
Navigate to folder you created for Dixie Creek.
File name is also "Dixie Creek Timber, LLC"
Once saved, your Map Document will be saved here as an .mxd
Prepare to Add Shapefiles to ArcMap
Bring Basic Shapefiles in to your My Computer workspace.
For this course, I have shared a DropBox folder with you all containing needed shapefiles that will help on all CE mapping projects.
Download the GIS Resources zip file from the GIS Training Course folder in Dropbox. Save the files from the folder to your GIS Resources folder that you created at the beginning of this training session.
You should have 3 file folders each containing 1 shapefile
1) Alabama State_Counties (this is a shapefile of the state of Alabama, showing county boundaries called Alabama.shp)
2) Georgia State_Counties (this is a shapefile of the state of Georgia, showing county boundaries called Georgia.shp)
3) MasterBoundaryFile (this is a shapefile of all of our CE boundaries called MasterBoundary.shp)
Parent Folder
GIS Resources
Shapefile Folders
An Important Note about File Management and Storage
An important thing to remember about where you keep your shapefiles is that in order for them to work in your map document, you can't move them from their location. The map document stores the path to the shapefile from where you first added it. If you moved it, you will have to tell the program where you moved it to. So, try not to move them :)
Lesson 3 : Adding a shapefile to ArcMap
A Note about Coordinate System and Projection
The first shapefile that you add to the map will set the coordinate system for the data frame. Each subsequent file added will "project on the fly" as long as it has a recognized coordinate system. Most files that we work with will be a projected coordinate system of the UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) NAD (North American Datum) 1983 UTM Zone 16N for Alabama and UTM17N for eastern Georgia.
Adding a Shapefile to the
Map Document

There are actually 3 ways that you can add your shapefile to the Map!
1) You can open the File menu in the top left corner, scroll down to Add Data, and choose Add Data from the context menu
2) You can click on the "Add Data" button on the toolbar
3) You can right click the layers tab in the Table of Contents
and then choose "Add Data" from the menu.
Choose one of these methods to add your shapefiles from the GIS Resources folder to the map document. You will have to "Connect to Folder" the first time you do this.
In the Add Data box, choose the Connect to Folder icon from the toolbar at the top
Connect to Folder Icon
Adding a Shapefile to the
Map Document

How to Connect to Folder
After choosing the "Connect to Folder" icon, the Connect to Folder window opens. From here, navigate through the file tree to find the parent folder that you have stored your info in. Mine would be "Land Trust". You could connect to a sub folder as well, but connecting to the parent folder will give you access to everything in that location.
To connect, Highlight the name of the folder you are connecting to. It's name should appear in the Folder window at the bottom. Click OK
Adding a Shapefile to the
Map Document

Once connected to the folder, navigate to the sub folder that stores the shapefiles downloaded from Dropbox
Double-click the Alabama State_Counties subfolder to open it.
Inside the folder is the actual shapefile, which looks like this:
While in My Computer, the
shapefile looks like this :
Click on the shapefile and select the Add button. The shapefile will be added and displayed in the ArcMap data frame.
Repeat steps for the other 2 shapefiles,
Georgia.shp and MasterBoundary.shp
CONGRATULATIONS !!!
You Have Started Your Map Project!!!
IF YOUR DATA FRAME LOOKS LIKE THIS TAKE A BREAK :)
Lesson 4: Adding Basemaps
Now that our map document shows the states we work in, as well as the easement properties we work on, it would be helpful to add some common basemaps. Common basemaps include digital orthophotos, satellite imagery and topographic maps. These can be downloaded from various sources, but thankfully, for our needs, ArcMap has an option to stream basemaps from ArcGIS online!
Don't Forget to SAVE YOUR WORK! File>Save
Be sure you are saving on a regular basis!!!
Adding a Basemap
At present, we can stream basemaps from ArcGIS online directly into our map document. A pro to this is that we don't have to wait an hour to download huge topo or ortho files, however, there are also some disadvantages as well.
1) You have to have an internet connection to use the basemaps from ArcGIS online
2) You may have to reload the basemap if you close out of your project
3) Some basemaps which have been free to stream in the past through ArcGIS online are requiring users to register with the companies who provide the stream in order to use them. Register with ArcGIS online to keep up with important changes.
Adding a Basemap
Aside from these few disadvantages, streaming is the easiest way to acquire a basemap for your project. Let's get started!
Again, there are a couple of ways to add a basemap to ArcMap.
To add a basemap, Click on File in the upper left corner.
From here, you can:
1) choose Add Data > Add Basemap to open the general basemaps.
.3 m resolution aerial photos and Landsat imagery
Street view used by TomTom
Shows relief, but not contour lines
Shows terrain,
but resolution is
lacking
Nice and simple for directions or proximity maps (small scale maps) not ideal for large scale maps
Adding a Basemap
Double click any map to add it to the your project
2) Choose File > Add Data > Add Data from ArcGIS Online
the second way to add a basemap is:
This is my preferred way to get a basemap. Those which say Add in the bottom right hand corner can be added directly to the map document.
Go ahead and ADD USA Topo Maps by clicking "Add"
Geographic Coordinate Systems Warning
After choosing Add, a box will likely pop up like the one shown here which says that the geographic coordinate system differs from the data frame's To fix this, we can specify a transformation based on the coordinate system of our data frame that we discussed earlier.
Choose transformations, and specify that this basemap which is GCS_WGS_1984, needs to be converted to GCS_North_American_1983 in order to correspond with our NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_16N or 17N shapefiles.
Here, choose the first in the list.
Adding a Basemap
Once USA Topo Maps has been added, go back to ArcGIS Online. File > Add Data > Add Data from ArcGIS Online. This time we will search for another imagery basemap.
In the search bar, type imagery. This will bring up a list of avaliable imagery maps for streaming.
Choose to "Add" Bing Maps Aerial
Repeat the steps to access ArcGIS Online, search for imagery and also add Bing Maps Hybrid
Adding a Basemap
USA Topo Maps - These topographic basemaps show Nat Geo Topo! maps at 1:100,000 and 1:24,000 which are scanned images of USGS Topos

Bing Maps Aerial and Hybrid - Bing offers the highest resolution in streaming basemaps form satellite imagery.

Other useful basemaps may be found for general analysis, such as USA Federal Lands, FEMA Flood Zones, USA Soil Survey and EPA Ecoregions to name a few.
Submit to get data available for the area you selected
Highlight County
Using GeoSpatial DataGateway
Click to Add
to Selection
Adding A Basemap
When basemap streaming is not an option, there are inline resources for finding basemaps. The NRCS Geospatial Datagateway is the most comprehensive site for these resources for both Alabama and Georgia:
www.datagateway.nrcs.usda.gov

Click here to Get Data
From this website, you can choose to order data by state, county, place or AOI, or Area of Interest, which allows you to add a shapefile to get data for.
Click here to choose to search for data by state, place or AOI
select state
Using GeoSpatial DataGateway
Scroll Down the page to select an Ortho Imagery or Topogeaphic Imagery file. Keep in mind, the newer the ortho, the better. However, orthos also are large files and can take a long time to download!
Check the box next to 2011 Imagery to Add to Order - Hit the green minus sign to expand the choices M is the metadata for the file, and the eye is a picture of the file.
The same thing goes for topographic images, except the file is not as big.
Click Continue
Using GeoSpatial DataGateway
Since these are images, you do not have to choose a format on the "How" page, but if you should ever need other file types, the format is ESRI shape, and the projection will be UTM Zone 16 NAD83 or UTM Zone 17 NAD83, depending on where you are working. Choose "FTP" for the delivery method to download online, then click Continue.
On the "Who" page, fill out your contact information, including the email address you would like the download sent to.
Finally, Review your order information and if correct, choose Place Order on the left side of your screen.
An email will be sent to you once the data is ready to download.
Once downloaded, extract the file to the folder that you are saving your Land Trust data to.
In ArcMap, you will "Add Data" just as you did when you added your shapefiles, and navigate to the location that you extracted your basemap. Click on the raster image file to add it to ArcMap
It looks like this :
The master boundary file provided to you is a database of the 663 properties that the land trust holds conservation easements on. In this exercise, we will learn to navigate to a specific property using the Select By Attributes tool, and then choosing to zoom to the selected features. This is the easiest way to call a specific record into the data frame from the attribute table.

The attribute table is the database that holds the information or "attributes" associated with the shapefile. These are arranged in rows and columns, like any other database, except the horizontal rows are collectively referred to as "records" and the vertical columns are collectively referred to as "fields"
Lesson 5: Navigating to a Property Boundary from the Master Boundary File
Master Boundary File
Attribute Table

Lets take a look at the attribute table for the MasterBoundary.shp file. To open the table, right click on the file in the Table of Contents, and select 'Open Attribute Table'
Each "record" contains "fields" for the Owner's Name, the Year of the CE, the Acreage of the CE, the County the CE is located in, which Trust holds the CE, the Project Area and the Season for monitoring. All of these fields can be queried.
This means, if you wanted to see a map display of all of the CE boundaries for one specific trust, you could write a query to do so using what is called SQL - or Structured Query Language.
Likewise, if you wanted to call one specific property into view, you could also write a query to do so.
This is commonly done by using the Select by Attribute function in ArcMap.
Using Select by Attribute
Exit out of the attribute table by clicking the 'x' in the upper right hand corner.
Next, move your mouse to the top of the ArcMap screen, and choose the Selection tab.
Next, choose 'Select by Attributes' to open the SQL box
Selection Tab
Select by Attributes
Choose the Layer name that you want to select from
Choose the Field name that you want to select from
Choose an Operation
Once field is selected, choose this to generate the list of field entries for that field
Using Select by Attributes
There are so many things that can be done with this tool, but we will just learn the basic query to get a specific property. We will write a query to select the Dixie Creek Timber, LLC by the Owner field.
1) Be sure the Layer is set to MasterBoundary in the drop down box
2) Our Method is to 'Create a new selection'
3) In the white box that lists the 'Field' names, double click "Owner" to add it to the query box.
4) Next, select the equals (=) sign from the operation choices
5) Next, hit the Get Unique Values button to get a list of the Owners in the MasterBoundary file
6) The 'Go To' box activates. Begin typing Dixie in the box. After you type Di, you should be able to select Dixie Creek Timber, LLC from the list by double clicking. This adds the the property to the Selection query.
7) Your Query Should look like this,
if it does, then Click "Apply" and then "Ok"
Zoom to Selection
Now that you have queried the property, open the attribute table once again for MasterBoundary.shp. At the bottom of the table, you will notice that 1 out of 663 records has been selected. Click on the aqua blue selection box to the left of this text to show the selected record.
This toggles from the unselected records to the selected records.
Zoom to Selection
There are 2 ways to Zoom to the selected record.
1)
Right click the arrow on the far left
of the record, scroll down to choose 'Zoom to Selected'
2)
Or, Right click the shapefile in the TOC and choose Selection
> Zoom to Selected Features
Changing Symbology
Once you are zoomed in to the Dixie Creek Timber, LLC property, you will need to change the symbology of your layers in order to see your basemaps.
Zoom to the Alabama shapefile layer.
(right click layer, zoom to layer)
You can see that each county is a solid color.
Click the solid color box under the Alabama.shp file in the TOC
This opens the Symbol Selector
Choose Hollow for the symbol.
Change the outline width to 1 pt on the right hand side of symbol selector box.
Hollow
1 pt.
Zoom Back to Property
Now, you can zoom back to Dixie Creek Timber, LLC. You can do this by the two methods discussed earlier, or you can press the Back button
Press OK
Change Property Symbology
Now, follow the same procedure to change the symbology for the property.
Click the solid box under the MasterBoundary.shp layer in TOC
Select Hollow, increase the outline width to 2 points this time
Press OK
Back Button
Lesson 6
Navigating the Property

Before beginning to edit, it is best to export the boundary you will be working with to its own location.
This makes a copy of the boundary for you to edit, without the risk of compromising the whole boundary file.
This will also be helpful for exporting the shapefile to your GPS unit or as a kml for ArcMap if needed.
To do this, right click on the MasterBoundary.shp in the TOC to open the context menu. Choose Selection > Create Layer from Selected Features
Once completed, A new layer is added to your TOC called MasterBoundary selection.
Export Layer as a Shapefile
We need to export this layer as a shapefile and save it to MyComputer.
Right click MasterBoundary selection in the TOC
Choose Data from the context menu, then select Export Data
You should get a box for Export Data
Export Layer as a Shapefile
Leave the default info as it is in the Export Data box, Except for the Output feature class. We need to link this to the folder created for GIS Data in our CE Maps folder for the Land Trust.
Click the folder next to the default path and navigate to the folder that you are saving your GIS data in
Once the folder for GIS Data is selected, type Dixie Creek Timber, LLC in the Name: box. Be sure 'Save As Type' is shapefile and then choose Save.
If the path is correct in the Output Feature Class box of the Export Data box, Click Ok.
Select OK to add the exported data to the map as a layer. We will only work with this shapefile when editing,
Remove Unneeded Layers
Change Symbology

Right lick the MasterBoundary selection layer in the TOC and select Remove to remove the layer from the map.

Turn off the MasterBoundary layer by unchecking the box next to the layer name.

Click the symbol box under the new shapefile layer in the TOC and change the symbology to Hollow, and the outline point size to 2
BE SURE TO SAVE YOUR MAP!!
FILE > SAVE
Zooming In and Out
To Zoom in to a feature on a property, you will use the magnifying glass with the plus sign located on the standard toolbar on ArcMap. It looks like this:
When selected, the cursor on the screen will be the same icon.
Practice zooming in on the property, try zooming to the pond in the northeastern corner of the property. To do this, place the cursor on the upper left hand of the pond & press the left mouse button while dragging the mouse to the bottom right hand corner of the pond area.
To return to full property view, press the left facing blue arrow on the toolbar, which always returns you to your previous map extent.
Lesson 7:
Drawing Features on the Map

Lets begin learning to draw features on the map. We will learn how to create a shapefile for points, lines and polygons, and how to begin editing and drawing features.
Before we can begin to draw features, we have to create empty shapefiles to hold the features that we want to draw.
To do this, we have to first open ArcCatalog. This is like ArcMap's version of MyComputer. The files you make in ArcCatalog will be stored in MyComputer at the same location specified.
Open ArcCatalog by selecting the ArcCatalog icon from the toolbar.
Creating a Shapefile in ArcCat
After selecting the ArcCat icon, the ArcCatalog window will open on the right hand side of your screen. Here, it should show the folder that we connected to at the beginning of this course. Navigate the catalog tree to the GIS Data folder that you created for Dixie Creek Timber, LLC. When expanded, you should see the boundary file that you exported.
Right click the GIS Data folder and select New from the context menu. Then select shapefile.
ArcCatalog Icon
Right click >
New >
Shapefile
Create Polygon Shapefile
Once the Create New Shapefile box opens, you will name this file 'Pond'. We will draw a Polygon around the pond feature to represent it
Name : Pond
Feature Type: Polygon
Press Edit to choose the Coordinate System
In Spatial Reference Properties, we will navigate the file tree to the NAD 1983 UTM Zone 16N for Alabama
Press the plus sign next to Projected Coordinate System to expand the list, do the same for UTM, then NAD 1983, then choose NAD 1983 UTM Zone 16N for the coordinate system for this shapefile and any others created in the state of Alabama or western Georgia.


Editing a Polygon Shapefile
After choosing Ok in the Create New Shapefile and Spatial Reference Properties boxes, your new shapefile is added to the TOC in ArcMap.
To begin editing, you need to add the editing toolbar to ArcMap if it is not already avaliable.
To do this, go to the Customize menu at the top of ArcMap and select Toolbars. Ensure that the Editor toolbar is chaecked On.
Once added, click the dropdown menu on the Editor toolbar
and choose Start Editing
Choose Pond as the layer to edit, then choose OK.
Editing a Polygon Shapefile
If the Create Features window does not open on the right hand screen, go back to the Editor toolbar dropdown menu and select Editing Windows > Create Features
You should see your Dixie Creek boundary file and the Pond polygon shapefile in the Create Features window.
We will need to zoom in to the pond again in order to draw it.
Use the magnifying glass and draw a box around the pond, starting again in the upper left corner, and dragging to the lower right corner of the pond.
Once zoomed, you are ready to draw. Click Pond in the Create Features window, this turns on the correct drawing tool. Choose an edge of the pond to begin drawing your polygon and insert your first vertex.
Keep tracing the perimeter of the pond, inserting vertices as needed to define the shape of the pond. To finish your polygon, right click and choose finish sketch from the context menu.
Create a Polygon Feature Shapefile
If your polygon shapefil for the lake looks something like this, you did it :)
BE SURE TO SAVE YOUR MAP!
Change Symbol for Polygon Feature
We have created a polygon shapefile to represent the pond, but it doesn't look too much like a pond.
Click on the box under the Pond layer in your TOC to open the Symbol Selector for this new polygon shapefile.
The premade ESRI symbol for Lake is a good choice, or you can customize the symbol by selecting your own Fill Color and Outline Color from the drop down menu on the right side of the Symbol Selector.
I am choosing 'Big Sky Blue' for my Fill Color and 'Tourmaline Green' for the Outline Color.
I will also change the Outline Width to 2 points to make it thicker.
When you have made your choices, select OK.
Again, Click the blue left facing arrow on the toolbar to return to the view of the whole property.
Create a Point Feature Shapefile
Now that we have created a Polygon feature, we need to learn to create a Point and Line feature. Let’s try this one with the topographic base map instead of the satellite imagery basemap.
In the TOC window, check on the USA Topo Maps layer and the layer that says Basemap just above it.
Be sure the other basemap layers are not checked on, or be sure that the Topo base map is on top of the other basemaps.




An old cabin is located on the Dixie Creek Timber, LLC property. However, you cannot see this feature from the satellite imagery. This cabin can be located by following the road that runs north from Highway 47 into the property. This road runs up the red line that separates section 19 and 20 on the topographic map. The cabin is represented by a black box at the end of this road. Find this feature and zoom in to it. You do not have to zoom tightly.
Create a Point Feature Shapefile
Open ArcCatalog again by clicking the ArcCatalog
icon on the toolbar.
Right click the folder where you are storing your Dixie Creek GIS Data, choose New, and then Shapefile

In the Create New Shapefile box, Name this shapefile 'Cabin'
Leave the Feature Type as 'Point'
Choose Edit under Spatial Reference and then expand
Projected Coordinate Systems > UTM > NAD 1983 > then select
NAD 1983 UTM Zone 16N and choose OK
If your Create New Shapefile box looks like this:

Choose OK


You are ready to begin Editing
Close the ArcCatalog window
Create a Point Feature Shapefile
Note that the Cabin has been added to the TOC, but it is not in the Create Features window. Since we have not finished our last editing session, we need to add the Cabin shapefile to our workspace. Do this by selecting the Organize Templates icon from the Create Features window.
Organize Templates
Select New Template
Once the Create New Templates Wizard Opens, Select Cabin, then Select Finish. Close Organize Feature Templates box. Cabin is added to the Create Features window.
Draw Point Feature and Symbolize
Select the Cabin in the Create Features window to enable the point drawing tool.
Place your cursor over the area where the cabin is to be located.
Left click once to place the point.
To symbolize the point, click the point under the Cabin layer in the TOC to open the Symbol Selector.
Many times, we use stars to represent a man-made feature such as this because they are simple and many different colors can be used to represent a multitude of features.
In the search window of the Symbol Selector, type Star and press enter.
Scroll down to ESRI Symbols and select Star 3.
Change the Color to Mars Red, and the Size to 22 Points
Then Press OK.
Hit the Blue left facing arrow to return to the full property view. Also, press the Unselect Button on the toolbar.

Draw a Line Feature Shapefile
Line features are used to represent roads, streams and other linear features such as poweline easements or railroad tracks.
For practice, we will create a Line shapefile called Roads to draw one of the roads shown on the topographic map.I chose the one to the west of the Cabin feature.Use the Zoom To Tool to zoom to a road on the Topo map. Again, Click the ArcCat icon on the toolbar to open ArcCatalogRight click where you are saving your Dixie Creek GIS DataChoose New > Shapefile to open the Create New Shapefile boxName this shapefile 'Roads', with 'Line' as the Feature TypeChoose Edit under Spatial Reference, then:Projected Coordinate System > UTM > NAD 1983 > NAD 1983 UTM Zone 16N
If your box looks like this, Click Ok & close ArcCatalog
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